hermal design of shell-and-tubeheat exchangers (STHEs) isdone by sophisticated computersoftware. However, a good un-derstanding of the underlying principlesof exchanger design is needed to use thissoftware effectively.This article explains the basics of ex-changer thermal design, covering suchtopics as: STHE components; classiﬁca-tion of STHEs according to constructionand according to service; data needed forthermal design; tubeside design; shellsidedesign, including tube layout, baffling,and shellside pressure drop; and meantemperature difference. The basic equa-tions for tubeside and shellside heattransfer and pressure drop are well-known; here we focus on the applicationof these correlations for the optimum de-sign of heat exchangers. Afollowup arti-cle on advanced topics in shell-and-tubeheat exchanger design, such as allocationof shellside and tubeside ﬂuids, use of multiple shells, overdesign, and fouling,is scheduled to appear in the next issue.
Components of STHEs
It is essential for the designer to have agood working knowledge of the mechani-cal features of STHEs and how they in-ﬂuence thermal design. The principalcomponents of an STHE are:•shell;•shell cover;•tubes;•channel;•channel cover;•tubesheet;•baffles; and•nozzles.Other components include tie-rods andspacers, pass partition plates, impinge-ment plate, longitudinal baffle, sealingstrips, supports, and foundation.The Standards of the Tubular Ex-changer Manufacturers Association(TEMA)
describe these various com-ponents in detail.An STHE is divided into three parts:the front head, the shell, and the rearhead. Figure 1 illustrates the TEMAnomenclature for the various constructionpossibilities. Exchangers are described bythe letter codes for the three sections —for example, a BFLexchanger has a bon-net cover, a two-pass shell with a longitu-dinal baffle, and a ﬁxed-tubesheet rearhead.
Classiﬁcationbased on construction
Aﬁxed-tubesheetheat exchanger (Figure 2) has straighttubes that are secured at both ends totubesheets welded to the shell. The con-struction may have removable channelcovers (
AEL), bonnet-type channelcovers (
BEM), or integral tubesheets(
NEN).The principal advantage of the ﬁxed-tubesheet construction is its low cost be-cause of its simple construction. In fact,the ﬁxed tubesheet is the least expensiveconstruction type, as long as no expan-sion joint is required.Other advantages are that the tubes canbe cleaned mechanically after removal of
SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS
Copyright 1997 American Institute of Chemical Engineers. All rights reserved. Copying and downloading permitted with restrictions.
Effectively DesignShell-and-TubeHeat Exchangers
Engineers India Ltd.
To make the most of exchanger design software, one needs tounderstand STHE classiﬁcation,exchanger components,tubelayout,baffling, pressure drop,and mean temperature difference.