Effects of cola drinks on the morphology and elastic modulus of dentin
, Katerina E. Aifantis
Physics University of the Witwatersrand, PO WITS 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa
Lab of Mechanics and Materials, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o
Received 14 December 2010Accepted 15 April 2011Available online 20 April 2011
DentinElastic modulusPhosphoric acidCola
The mechanical and morphological degradation that human dentin undergoes after prolonged exposure incola drinks was examined using nanoindentation and AFM. The elastic modulus of the dentin prior colaexposurewas 18.28±1.7 GPa,while afterexposureithad decreased to4.25±1.4 GPaonthesurface thatwasin direct contact with the drink, and to 13.38±2.9 GPa on the surface that was in indirect contact with thedrink. AFM documented the corrosion effects of the cola through topography images and histograms of theRMS roughness.© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Understandingtheeffectthatfruitjuiceshaveonteethhasbecomeof particular interest during the past years, since complete reminer-alizationbythesalivaisnotpossibleafterexposuretocitricacid.Inpro
lometry was used to capture the mass loss that took place afterenamel immersion in orange juice, and atomic force microscopy(AFM) images documented that the surface became rougher, andhence more prone to bacteria adhesion and plaque formation,while nanoindentation experiments recorded a 85% hardness de-crease after juice exposure.However, it is not only fruit juices that are highly corrosive. Softdrinks, particularly those containing phosphoric acid, are alsodamaging, but have not been studied to a similar extent. Initial insitu studies concerning the effect that colas have on teeth wereperformed in[4,5]. Pro
lometry and indentation were used toindicate mass reduction and the percentage reduction of the surfacemicrohardness. However, hardness or elastic modulus values werenot given and microscopy was not performed to illustrate themorphological damage.The present study is concerned with the degradation that theelastic modulus of dentin undergoes after prolonged exposure in acoladrink,whosemainacidicingredientisphosphoricacid.
Dentinisa highly mineralized tissue, that consists of approximately 50%mineral, 30% organic components (mostly type I collagen) and 20%
uids. Its distinct microstructure is characterized by tubules (1
min diameter) that run from the dentin
enamel junction towards thepulp[6,7]. Micropores and channels created at the dentin
enamel junction, in addition, to microcracks on the enamel surface allowfor acidic solutions to permeate into the dentin and corrode it,especially since remineralization is more dif
cult, as saliva do notreach the dentin easily. It is anticipated that once phosphoric acidpenetrates into the dentin, it is not removed easily, but trapped there.Hence the dentin sample was exposed to the cola for 16 h. Themechanical and morphological degradation were captured throughnanoindentation and AFM.
2. Materials and methods
The premolar tooth tested was obtained from an adult incisionand was sliced using a microtome along the labiolingual plane. Theresultingspecimenhadathicknessof2 mmandanareaof1 cm×1 cm;as they were cross sectional they consisted mainly of dentin. Bothsurfaces (upper and bottom) of the sample were polished usingabrasive paper from 800 to 1200 grit, followed by 0.25
m diamondpaste polishing.AFM and nanoindentation were performed prior to immersing thesample in the cola. AFM was carried out using the Veeco Multimode,under tapping mode, with a Si
tip with a tip radius of 12 nm.Following AFM, 50 nanoindentations were performed using a CSMinstrument with a Berkovich diamond tip (tip radius was 150 nm).The indentations were load controlled, and a linear loading trapezoi-dal sequence was used (maximum load was 200 mN, and a hold timeof 20 s was allowed). The spacing between the indents was 50
m, soas to ensure that each indentation was not in
uenced by that
Corresponding author at: Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton,MI 49931, USA. Tel.: +30 2310 995921.
) hasapH of 1.1andisamainingredientin colas.Itisstrongerthan citric acid (5% citric acid has a pH of 1.87), which is also used in carbonated sodas.0167-577X/$
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