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Sand Casting is the most widely used casting process in manufacturing. Almost allmetalcasting materials can be sand cast. Sand castings can range in size from very smallto extremely large. Some examples of items manufactured in modern industry by sandcasting processes are engine blocks, machine tool bases, cylinder heads, pump housings,and valves, just to name a few.
Product of the disintegration of rocks over long periods of time.Most sand casting operations use silica sand (SiO
). A great advantage of sand inmanufacturing applications is that sand is inexpensive. Another advantage of sand tomanufacture products by metal casting processes is that sand is very resistant to elevatedtemperatures. In fact sand casting is one of the few processes that can be used for metalswith high melting temperatures such as steels, nickel, and titanium. Usually sand used tomanufacture a mold for the casting process is held together by a mixture of water andclay. A typical mixture by volume could be 89% sand, 4% water, 7% clay. Control of allaspects of the properties of sand is crucial when manufacturing parts by sand casting,therefore a sand laboratory is usually attached to the foundry.
Use of binder in Sand Casting:
A mold must have the physical integrity to keep its shape throughout the castingoperation. For this reason, in sand casting, the sand must contain some type of binder thatacts to hold the sand particles together. Clay serves an essential purpose in the sandcasting manufacturing process, as a binding agent to adhere the molding sand together. Inmanufacturing industry other agents may be used to bond the molding sand together inplace of clay. Organic resins, (such as phenolic resins), and inorganic bonding agents,(such as phosphate and sodium silicate), may also be used to hold the sand together. Inaddition to sand and bonding agents the sand casting mixture to create the mold willsometimes have other constituents added to it in order to improve mold properties.
Types of Sand Used in Sand Casting:
There are two general types of sand used in the manufacturing process of sand casting.
Naturally bonded sand is less expensive but it includes organicimpurities that reduce the fusion temperature of the sand mixture for the casting, lowerthe binding strength, and require a higher moisture content.
Synthetic sand is mixed in a manufacturing lab starting with a pure