study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies.
At the first level is thediscovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.
Independent and dependent and extraneous variables in a research design:
The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if hecould, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, herecords his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such asymbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is alogical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study.
Dependent and Independent variables:
A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume differentquantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are notquantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena mayalso be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered.Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are knownas
But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can beexpressed only in integer values are called
In statistical term,they are also known as
For example, age is a continuous variable;whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. When changes in onevariable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as adependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in thedependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables.For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, whileprice is the independent variable.And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity,then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is adependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price,income and price of substitute.
The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study butaffect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assumethat a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children
school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independentvariable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may alsoinfluence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. Theinfluence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically calledas an
Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such amanner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independentvariable and any other extraneous variable or variables.
b. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling.Answer:
Difference between Census survey and Sample Survey