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Electronic Brake Force Distribution

Electronic Brake Force Distribution

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Published by Leo Jose

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Published by: Leo Jose on Aug 22, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Electronic brake force distribution is an automobile brake technology thatautomatically varies the amount of force applied to each of a vehicle's brakes, basedon road conditions, speed, loading, etc. Always coupled with anti-lock brakingsystems, EBD can apply more or less braking pressure to each wheel in order tomaximize stopping power
When braking heavily in a car you get a dramatic forwards weight transfer. The bodypivots forward, the front suspension is compressed, and more weight is transferred tothe front tyres. More weight acting on the front tyres means more grip is available,and conversely the more lightly laden rear wheels have less grip at their disposal.
an equal amount of braking force was applied to the front and rear wheels in a heavybraking scenario, the lighter rear wheels would run out of grip first and be much moreprone to wheel lock Electronic Brake Force Distribution (EBD) provides anautomatically adjusting bias depending on conditions to ensure the front and rearaxles exert the most effective braking possible without wheel lock. EBD systemswork in conjunction with ABS and use an electronically controlled valve whichdiverts hydraulic pressure to the front and rear axles in real time according to theconditions and scenario.
Electronic brake force distribution (EBFD) is a braking system that monitors factorslike vehicle weight and road condition and adjusts the vehicle's braking forceaccordingly. Some vehicle manufacturers provide EBFD as a standard feature
In a vehicle without electronic brake force distribution, brake force is distributedevenly to front and rear tires every time the brakes are applied. Since vehicles tend toshift weight to the front when braking, this can sometimes cause the rear brakes tolock, resulting in a potential skid
An electronic brake force distribution system uses sensors to monitor the condition of the road and the vehicle's weight distribution to determine where the most brake forceis necessary. It automatically increases or decreases force accordingly
The advantage of having an electronic brake force distribution system is that it adjustsautomatically to a variety of conditions to ensure the brakes are used as efficiently aspossible. It reduces the risk of brakes locking and prevents tire skids
Electronic Brake force Distribution always works in conjunction with the antilock brakes. It completely differs from traditional braking technology
Talking about the traditional braking technology, when brake is applied, the brakefluid passes to the brake cylinder where the pressure of the fluid pushes the piston out.This further pushes out the brake pads and causes them to rub against the caliper. Thisrubbing creates friction and results in locking of the wheels. To improve the stoppingpower antilock brakes were introduced to monitor individual wheel speed and preventwheel lock up. The force that prevents wheel lock up comes from the braking circuitthat detects extreme and rapid deceleration in any of the four car wheels
Further it was realised that different amount of braking force is required to lock awheel rotating on different types of road surfaces. This requirement was fulfilled withthe introduction of electronic brakeforce distribution that detects different road andspeed conditions
For example, if a car takes a corner turn, one wheel of the car may be on mud, and theremaining three on a smooth road surface. Under this situation, the wheel on the mudrequires a different pressure than the one on the road for efficient performance.
Electronic Brake force Distribution works electronically to monitor such conditionsthrough installed sensors. These sensors are designed and installed to monitor themovement of the wheels and distribution of pressure in response to the conditionsmet.
The regulation and functioning of the EBD is controlled by the ABS ElectronicControl Unit. Together, both these innovative car technologies help to optimizebraking performance and provide a more precise braking under all possible conditions
Operation description
The skid control ECU receives speed signals from each speed sensor to detect the slipconditions of the wheels and sends control signals to the solenoid.
The solenoid valve controls the brake fluid pressure of each wheel cylinder anddivides the control power properly between the front and rear wheels and the right and
left wheels. The BRAKE warning light comes on to indicate malfunctions in the EBDsystem
 Based on the signals received from each of the 4wheel speed sensors, the skid control ECUcalculates the speed and deceleration of each wheel, and checks the wheel slippageconditions. The ECU controls the pressure holding valve and pressure reduction valve inorder to adjust the brake fluid pressure of each wheel cylinder in accordance with theslippage conditions
When a failure occurs in the ABS system, the ABS warning light comes on and itsoperation is prohibited. In addition to this, when a failure which disables the EBDoperation occurs, the brake warning light comes on and its operation is prohibited.
If control is prohibited due to a malfunction during operation, control is disabledgradually to avoid sudden vehicle instability
Front speed sensor
Detects the wheel speed and sends a signal to the skid control ECU.
The front speed sensor (semiconductor speed sensor) with the integrated bearing andthe sensor rotor (magnetic sensor rotor) are installed on the front axle hub..
The magnetic field changes as the magnetic sensor rotor rotates. The semiconductorspeed sensor detects the change and outputs it as the vehicle speed pulseSkid control sensor
The skid control sensor (semiconductor speed sensor) and the sensor rotor (magneticsensor rotor) are installed on the rear axle carrier.
The skid control sensor has the same structure and functions as the front speed sensor.Skid control ECU
Processes the signals from the sensors to control the brake actuation.
Sends and receives control signals to and from the ECM via CAN communicationBrake actuator
Consists of the master cylinder cut solenoid valve, holding solenoid valve, pumpmotor, and reservoir, and adjusts the brake fluid pressure applied to each wheelcylinder. Houses the skid control ECU.Solenoid relay

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