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Published by: jii_907001 on Aug 23, 2012
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[Arrangements have been made to supply the necessary castings for this lathe, at a low figure, to any who are
interested. This magazine has no financial or other interest in this, beyond that of service to the reader. The nameand address of the maker will he furnished, upon request, by the Shop Notes Department, Popular Mechanics Magazine,
6 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago.—Editor.]
HILE the turret lathe is essentially
a tool for the production of work inlarge quantities, a 6-in. lathe of the typedescribed in this article will be foundexceedingly useful in the small experi-mental shop. With a center held in themain turret, the machine may be usedas a simple engine lathe, and when anumber of similar pieces are to be turnedout in a hurry the work may be per-formed in almost as expeditious a manneras on a commercial turret lathe.This machine was built and used by thethe spindle first, then re-center and finishthe outside. The nose is taper-bored totake the collets, and threaded eightthreads per inch, U. S. standard, to fitthe faceplates and chucks. The taper seatfor the collets should not be finished untilthe lathe has been completely assembled;it should then be machined with toolsheld in the toolpost of the lathe itself.The inner races of the ball bearingsshould be a good fit on the flat threadson the rear of the spindle, and on the out-side of the spindle at the front. Bearing-author in his own work-shop, on fine precisionwork, and many accurate jobs have been done withit very quickly. Most of the work of building canbe done in a workshopequipped only with a vise
and bench drill, with the
necessary small tools, asflat cold-rolled steel isused for the ways, car-riage, and other parts of that character; it will benecessary, however, tohave certain things, suchas the machining of theheadstock and the cuttingof the feed screw, done
Photograph of the Completed Lathe as Used in the Author's Workshop: It
Is Capable of Performing Both Fast and Accurate Work
in a machine shop, but this is a small item.The headstock is made of gray iron, andis fitted with an overarm steadyrest,which allows the carriage to travel thefull length of long work, as the work issupported from the top and rear. Thespindle is carried, at the rear, by a double-row ball bearing, .75 in. wide, of the com-bined axial and radial-load type, and atthe front by a single-row bearing, .629 in.wide. Both of these bearings have anoutside diameter
of 2.441
in., and an insidediameter of 1.181 in. Care must be takento bore the bearing housings a push fitfor the bearings, and to have all facessquare and parallel with each other.The spindle should be made of a goodgrade of steel, of about .3-per-cent carboncontent, and is hollow. It is best to boreretaining rings are fitted at the rear,clamping the outer race of the bearingfirmly, and taking up the end thrust.These are fitted with felt dust rings, bear-ing on the collars on the spindle; therings at the front are also fitted with dustrings, running on the spindle, but theserings do not clamp the single-row bear-ing, which is permitted to float.When the headstock is assembled, thebearing housings should be packed witha good grade of vaseline, which will lasta long time; see that the vaseline supplyis at all times sufficient for good lubrica-tion. Spindles fitted in this manner arefar superior to those fitted with plainbearings, as they consume less power, arefree from vibration, and allow of accurateas well as heavy work. The writer has
taken a 1/8-in. cut on a piece of 1/2-in.
cold-rolled steel at a distance of 5 in.
from the collet, the reduced diameterbeing very accurate as to size.The drawbar for the collets is a tube,the outer diameter of which fits the bore
of the spindle. It is threaded at the front
to fit the collets, and is fitted with a hand-wheel at the rear. A tiebar at the top of the headstock keeps the two arms stiff and rigid. The cone pulley is fastened tothe spindle by a setscrew, spotted intothe spindle; two cone pulleys, of the samesize, should be cast and machined, onebeing used on the countershaft. The armfor the steadyrest is a length of 1-in.must be as true and straight as it is pos-sible to make them, as upon their truthdepends the accuracy of the lathe. Whentrued, all surfaces should either be frostedor polished.The shear anchor bolts should nowbe screwed home, the pipes, leg and rearleadscrew-bearing bolts placed in posi-tion, and a wooden form made to fitclosely around shears and legs, in whichto pour the cement. The cement used isa mixture of one part Portland cementto three parts clean, sharp sand, mixedwith just enough water to enable a hand-ful of the mixture to be picked up andsqueezed and to leave the impression of cold-rolled
steel; it is
clamped in posi-tion by 3/8-in.
capscrews,which com-
press the
slotted head-
stock arms.
The headstock
is fastened to
the bed by two
1/2- i n. bolts,
running upthrough piecesof pipe cast in-to the bed; bythis means nostrains are puton the cement.
con-struction of thebed is some-what of a nov-elty, although it
has been thor-oughly tried
out by the
writer in thisthe fingers in it.This cement is
tamped down
firmly in the
form, poking it
around the
screws and into
the corners
with an ice
pick, or some
similar tool.
When the con-
crete has set
thoroughly, theboards are re-moved and thecement thor-oughly wettedtwice a day forabout a week;this will temperthe cement, andis a very im-portant part of the work. The
resulting bed is
as strong as
anyone couldwish. Reinforc-ing rods may be laid down in the cement,as it is being placed, or wires twistedthroughout the bolts, adding further tothe strength of the bed.The main member of the carriage ismade of cold-rolled steel, 1/2 by 5 by 5 1/4in. in size, machined as shown in thecarriage-detail drawing. A piece of 1/4by 2-in. cold-rolled steel, 7 in. long, isfastened to the top of the main memberby 3/16-in. screws; on this piece the crossslide runs. The cross slide is also madeof steel, machined as shown, and is fittedwith a turret toolpost. The cross slideis held to its ways by means of anglepieces, as shown in the front view of thecarriage. The turret is made of steel, andis casehardened; four tools can beand other machines, and found to be verysatisfactory. This method of making thebed eliminates the hardest work of mak-ing a small lathe, as it does away withthe bed casting and the necessary ma-
A piece of 1/2 by 4-in. cold-rolled steel,30 in. long, is used for the shears. Thisis first drilled and tapped for a number of 3/16-in. stove bolts, of varying lengths,which are used to anchor the shears tothe cement, also drilled and countersunkfor the leg screws and for the 1/2-in. head-stock bolts. It is next carefully straight-ened and scraped to a true surface on topand sides, testing the width throughoutwith a micrometer, and using a knife-edge straightedge on the surfaces; these
Method of Making the Bed: The Bolts for the Rear LeadscrewBearing are Not Shown, but should be CastIn like the Leg Bolts
mounted in this at once. On the boss of the cross slide is mounted a small index
post, into the countersunk top of which
the elevating screws fit, allowing each toolto be adjusted to its correct cutting
height. A spring pushes the turret up-
ward when the clamping handle is loos-ened, allowing the turret to be turned tobring another tool into cutting position.A 1/4-in. square-thread screw operates thecross slide, and the tools are held in the
toolpost by 1/4-in. square-head setscrews.
The apron of the carriage is made of steel, 2 in. wide, and is fastened to themain carriage member by flat-head ma-chine screws. The front angle piece of against the edge of the shears. Brassshims, or wearing pieces, 1/32 in. thick, are
set in the ends, to take the wear on the
filler piece. The rear angle is plain, ma-chined as shown in the drawing.Behind the apron is fitted a bronzenut; this rotates in a bearing fastened tothe apron, and is screwed into one of apair of miter gears, which, in turn, aredriven by 3-to-l spur gears; the largergear is pinned to the handwheel, and the
smaller is pressed onto the hub of the
second miter gear, which runs in theapron. The handwheel runs on a stud
screwed into the apron; this stud is fitted
with a knurled friction nut, so that, if 
Full Details of the Carriage and Apron Mechanism: Note the Employment of the Small Index Post and Ele-
vating Screws in the Toolpost to Secure the Correct Height for Each Tool. The
Post is Set in the Inner Left-Hand Corner of the Turret Base
the carriage is built up, as shown, thefiller piece being slit at each end, so thatwear may be taken up as it develops, bytightening the adjusting screws. Theholes for these screws do not go clearthrough the filler piece, but stop at theslits, so that, by screwing the screws in,the inner ends of the filler are pressedchange gears are fitted to the lathe or itis desired to feed by means of the hand-wheel on the end of the leadscrew, thenut can be tightened and the whole as-sembly of spur and miter gears and nutlocked firmly.
The rear, or main-turret, base and slide
are made of cast iron, a dovetailed slide

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