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Ics 2303 Multimedia_examination

Ics 2303 Multimedia_examination

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Published by: Karanja Eric on Aug 23, 2012
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MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS EXAMINATIONInstructions: Attempt Question one (1) and any other twoQuestions.Duration: 2 HrsQUESTION 1
i) Define the following terms as used with multimedia applicationsa)Multimedia
Multimedia
 
is woven combinations of text, graphic art, sound, animation,video and other kinds of elements.
b)VRML
stands for Virtual Reality Markup Language. It is for descripting a scene ina virtual world.
[4 Marks]
ii) Differentiate between the following multimedia applicationcompressions:a)MPEG-1 -
MPEG (stands for Moving Picture Experts Group) is also a jointISO and CCITT working group for developing standards for compressing stillimages-It defines a basic data rate of 1.2Mbits/sec
a)MPEG-2
MPEG-2 is a newer video encoding standard which builds on MPEG-1-It supports higher video quality and higher data rate (up to 80 Mbits/sec)
b)JPEG
JPEG (stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group) is a joint ISO andCCITT working group for developing standards for compressing stillimages.-JPEG can be applied to colour or grayscale images
c)H 261 (p x 64)
[8 Marks]
iii) A bitmap image has resolution 640 x 480 pixels. Each pixel is 24-bit deep. What is the size of the bitmap in bytes?Each pixel requires 3 bytes = (24/8)640 x 480 x 3 = 921,600Bytes900Kb1KB = 1024 bytes, 1Mb = 1024 x 1024bytes
[4 Marks]
iv) Define the following sound terminologiesa)Period
is the interval at which a periodic signal repeats regularly.
b)Pitch
is a perception of sound by human beings. It measures how ‘high’ is thesound as it is perceived by a listener.
c)Frequency
measures a physical property of a wave. It is the reciprocal value of periodf=1/p
 
The unit is Hertz (Hz) or kilohertz (kHz).
d)Amplitude
is the measure of sound levels. For a digital sound, amplitude is the samplevalue.
e)Bandwidth.
is the range of frequencies a device can produce or a human can hear.
[5 Marks]
v) Discuss what you understand by the term Companding. Also writedown the m-Law companding equation defined in the Americanstandards.
[6 Marks]
vi) Explain the process of digitalization.
[3 Marks]QUESTION 2
i) Discuss the following terminology in relationship to digital imagesa)Pixel
The smallest element on a digital image
b)Depth
The
depth
of an image is the number of bits used to represent each pixel.
c)Resolution
 Resolution
measures how much detail an image can have. There are severalresolutions relating to images.
d)Dithering
 Dithering 
is a technique to increase the number of colours to be perceived in animage. It is based on human eye’s capability for 
 spatial integration
, that is, if you look at a number of closely placed small objects from a distance, they willlook like merged together.
[4 Marks]
ii) Normal telephony audio captures analog frequencies up to 3.5KHzand has a digital data rate of 64Kb/s. Explain how this data rate cameabout, and the basic principles involved, given the range of frequencies to be captured. Your answer should cover both theanalog-to-digital conversion process and the final digital encodingused.
[8 Marks]
iii) Define the term data encoding as used in multimedia applicationsand outline the difference between the following data encodingtechniques giving examples in each technique.a)Entropy encodingb)Source codingc)Hybrid coding
[8 Marks]QUESTION 3
i) Briefly explain how the Discrete Cosine Transform Operates, andwhy is it so important in data compression in Multimedia applications
 
[5marks]
ii) If we record 10 seconds of stereo music at 44.1KHz, 16 bits, what isit size in Kbytes?
[5 Marks]
iii) Why is data compression necessary for Multimedia activities?
[5 marks]
iv) Describe briefly the MIDI.
-MIDI data does not encode individual samples. MIDI data encode
musical events
and commands to control instruments.-Common MIDI devices include electronic music synthesizers, modules, and MIDIdevices in common sound cards.-MIDI data are grouped into
 MIDI messages
. Each MIDI message represents amusical event, e.g., pressing a key, setting a switch or adjusting foot pedals.-A sequence of MIDI messages is grouped into a
track 
.
[5Marks]QUESTION 4
i) Define the
Nyquist’s SamplingTheorem
[4 Marks]
ii) There are two ways of synthesizing MIDI sounds; FM synthesis andwave-table synthesis. Discuss the two methods.
 FM Synthesis
(Frequency Modulation)—Using one sine wave to modulate another sinewave, thus generating a new wave which is rich in
timbre
. It consists of the two originalwaves, their sum and difference and
harmonics
.The drawbacks of FM synthesis are: the generated sound is not real; there is no exactformula for generating a particular sound.Wave-table synthesis — It stores representative digital sound samples. It manipulatesthese sample, e.g., by changing the pitch, to create the complete range of notes.
[6 Marks]
ii) Define the following coding scheme. Using this coding methodcompress the following uncompressed data : ABBBBCCDEFGa.Run-length coding.
Where data files frequently contain the same character repeated many timesin a row.
AB4C2DEFGb.Huffman coding
is anentropy encoding algorithmused for lossless data compression. The term refers to the use of avariable-length codetable for encoding a sourcesymbol (such as a character in a file) where the variable-length code tablehas been derived in a particular way based on the estimated probability of occurrence for each possible value of the source symbol.A(1)B(4)C(2)D(1)E(1)F(1)

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