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Table Of Contents

Hybrid vehicles
1.1 Performance characteristics of road vehicles
1.1.2 Engine downsizing
1.1.3 Drive cycle characteristics
1.1.4 Hybrid vehicle performance targets
1.1.5 Basic vehicle dynamics
1.2 Calculation of road load
1.2.1 Components of road load
1.2.2 Friction and wheel slip
1.3 Predicting fuel economy
1.3.1 Emissions
1.3.2 Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC)
1.3.3 Fuel economy and consumption conversions
1.4 Internal combustion engines: a primer
1.4.1 What is brake mean effective pressure (BMEP)?
1.4.2 BSFC sensitivity to BMEP
1.4.3 ICE basics: fuel consumption mapping
1.5 Grid connected hybrids
1.5.1 The connected car, V2G
1.5.2 Grid connected HEV20 and HEV60
2.1.1 Locomotive drives
2.1.2 Series–parallel switching
2.1.3 Load tracking architecture
2.2 Pre-transmission parallel configurations
2.2.1 Mild hybrid
2.2.2 Power assist
2.2.3 Dual mode
2.3 Pre-transmission combined configurations
2.3.1 Power split
2.3.2 Power split with shift
2.3.3 Continuously variable transmission (CVT) derived
2.3.4 Integrated hybrid assist transmission
2.4 Post-transmission parallel configurations
2.4.1 Post-transmission hybrid
2.4.2 Wheel motors
2.5 Hydraulic post-transmission hybrid
3.1 Grade and cruise targets
3.1.1 Gradeability
3.1.2 Wide open throttle
3.2 Launch and boosting
3.2.1 First two seconds
3.2.2 Lane change
3.3 Braking and energy recuperation
3.3.1 Series RBS
3.3.2 Parallel RBS
3.3.3 RBS interaction with ABS
3.3.4 RBS interaction with IVD/VSC/ESP
3.4 Drive cycle implications
3.4.1 Types of drive cycles
3.4.2 Average speed and impact on fuel economy
3.4.3 Dynamics of acceleration/deceleration
3.4.4 Wide open throttle (WOT) launch
3.5 Electric fraction
3.5.1 Engine downsizing
3.5.2 Range and performance
3.6 Usage requirements
3.6.1 Customer usage
3.6.2 Electrical burden
3.6.3 Grade holding and creep
3.6.4 Neutral idle
3.7 References
Sizing the drive system
4.1 Matching the electric drive and ICE
4.1.1 Transmission selection
4.1.2 Gear step selection
4.1.3 Automatic transmission architectures
4.2 Sizing the propulsion motor
4.2.1 Torque and power
4.2.2 Constant power speed ratio (CPSR)
4.2.3 Machine sizing
4.3 Sizing the power electronics
4.3.1 Switch technology selection
4.3.2 kVA/kW and power factor
4.3.3 Ripple capacitor design
4.3.4 Switching frequency and PWM
4.4 Selecting the energy storage technology
4.4.1 Lead–acid technology
4.4.2 Nickel metal hydride
4.4.3 Lithium ion
4.4.4 Fuel cell
4.4.5 Ultra-capacitor
4.4.6 Flywheels
4.5 Electrical overlay harness
4.5.1 Cable requirements
4.5.2 Inverter busbars
4.5.3 High voltage disconnect
4.5.4 Power distribution centres
4.6 Communications
4.6.1 Communication protocol: CAN
4.6.2 Power and data networks
4.6.3 Future communications: TTCAN
4.6.4 Future communications: Flexray
4.6.5 Competing future communications protocols
4.6.6 DTC diagnostic test codes
4.7 Supporting subsystems
4.7.1 Steering systems
4.7.2 Braking systems
4.7.3 Cabin climate control
4.7.4 Thermal management
4.7.5 Human–machine interface
4.8 Cost and weight budgeting
4.8.1 Cost analysis
4.8.2 Weight tally
4.9 References
Electric drive system technologies
5.1 Brushless machines
5.1.1 Brushless dc
5.1.2 Brushless ac
5.1.3 Design essentials of the SPM
5.1.4 Dual mode inverter
5.2 Interior permanent magnet
5.2.1 Buried magnet
5.2.2 Flux squeeze
5.3.3 Pole changing
5.4 Variable reluctance machine
5.4.1 Switched reluctance
5.4.2 Synchronous reluctance
5.4.3 Radial laminated structures
5.5 Relative merits of electric machine technologies
5.5.1 Comparisons for electric vehicles
5.5.2 Comparisons for hybrid vehicles
5.6 References
Power electronics for ac drives
6.1 Essentials of pulse width modulation
6.2 Resonant pulse modulation
6.3 Space-vector PWM
6.4 Comparison of PWM techniques
6.5 Thermal design
6.6 Reliability considerations
6.7 Sensors for current regulators
6.8 Interleaved PWM for minimum ripple
6.9 References
Drive system control
7.1 Essentials of field oriented control
7.2 Dynamics of field oriented control
7.3 Sensorless control
7.4 Efficiency optimisation
7.5 Direct torque control
7.6 References
Drive system efficiency
8.1 Traction motor
8.1.1 Core losses
8.1.2 Copper losses and skin effects
8.2 Inverter
8.2.1 Conduction
8.2.2 Switching
8.2.3 Reverse recovery
8.3 Distribution system
8.4 Energy storage system
8.5 Efficiency mapping
8.6 References
Hybrid vehicle characterisation
9.1 City cycle
9.2 Highway cycle
9.3 Combined cycle
9.4 EuropeanNEDC
9.6 Regulated cycle for hybrids
9.7 References
Energy storage technologies
10.1 Battery systems
10.1.1 Lead–acid
10.1.2 Nickel metal hydride
10.1.3 Lithium ion
10.2 Capacitor systems
10.2.1 Symmetrical ultra-capacitors
10.2.2 Asymmetrical ultra-capacitors
10.2.3 Ultra-capacitors combined with batteries
10.2.4 Ultra-capacitor cell balancing
10.3 Hydrogen storage
10.3.1 Metal hydride
10.3.2 High pressure gas
10.4 Flywheel systems
10.5 Pneumatic systems
10.6 Storage system modelling
10.6.1 Battery model
10.6.2 Fuel cell model
10.6.3 Ultra-capacitor model
10.7 References
Hybrid vehicle test and validation
11.1 Vehicle coast down procedure
11.2 Sport utility vehicle test
11.3 Sport utility vehicle plus trailer test
11.4 Class 8 tractor test
11.5 Class 8 tractor plus trailer test
11.6 References
Index
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0863419151 PropulsionA

0863419151 PropulsionA

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Published by hangsamnang

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Published by: hangsamnang on Aug 23, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/10/2012

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