Q: The signals from telephone exchange are analog signals. If you think that I have digital telephone set in home then why would these signalsanalog?
In old days when a number is dialed then the exchange had a mechanicalarm. You can listen the sound of that arm as the sound of typewriter on every digits of your number. But there is no sound now a day, only this process is converted into digital.But the signals pass through media as analog.
Avoid Wrong Concept
If you use the modem in between the telephone exchange and your computer, thenmodem converts the analog signals into digital to analog signals,
this concept is wrong.
The basic purpose of modem is modulation and demodulation.
Modulation & Demodulation
If you take a page and throw away with full capacity then this page (Information) will nottravel more. But if you use a stone covered by paper (Information) then this paper willcovered long distance with high speed. When this paper reached to other side, unwantedinformation (Stone) is removed to get information (Paper).Insertion of carrier (Stone) into information for covering long distance is called“Modulation”. And distraction of carrier unwanted information is called “Demodulation”.
Open System Interconnection
OSI Reference Model
The word reference always between two things, there is no reference of only a singlething. The eye’s reference is with eye and the leg’s reference with leg. This referencemeans there is any two devices is involved in this reference not one device. OSIReference Model is not for a single machine, this model is for networks.
OSI stands for Open System Interconnection.
Q: Why is it said as Open System, why not as Close System?
As you know,
“The connectivity of two or more than two devices sothat they can communicate which each other”.
there is not mentioned that medium would be copper, fiber, microwaves or radiowaves for the connectivity. Media may be anything for the connectivity.