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Final CCNA Notes

Final CCNA Notes

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Published by Maheshwar ELango

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Published by: Maheshwar ELango on Aug 23, 2012
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09/10/2013

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CCNA
 
(Cisco Certified Network Associate)
 
Syllabus
1)Introduction2)OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model3)Network Devices
Types of Communication
Cards
LAN & WAN Concept
4)IP Addressing & Concepts
 
IPv4
IPv6
Subneting
Superneting
Variable Length Subnet Scheme (VLSM)
And Operation
5)C.D.P6)IOS Boot up Sequence
IOS
Upgrading
Dual (Booting)
7)IP Routing
Static Route
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
IGRP (Internet Gateway Routing Protocol)
EIGRP (Enhance Internet Gateway Routing Protocol)
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
8)Switching
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)
9)ACL (Access Control List)10)WAN (Wide Area Network)
Router as a Switch
11)Frame Relay12)NAT & PAT
Private & Public
13)WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)
 
14)VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol)15)Cabling
 
1)Introduction
CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate)
Cisco
Cisco is company name, in course. Company may any, there are many companies i.e.Cisco, Motorola, Simons, Microsoft, but configurations are same. Cisco has 87% shareson infrastructure of IP. It is said that if you send any small information on Internet, this isimpossible that this information do not pass through the Cisco Devices.Our purpose is not reading about any product or any company but only with technology.
Certified
Practically you know what you study. 
Associate
This is a level in this line. Associate is the first level.
Network 
Our whole lab is around the one word i.e. “
Network 
”.
“Connectivity of two or more than two devices so that you can communicate witheach other, you can exchange the sources or share the information is callednetworking”
. It has two parts:1.Connectivity2.CommunicationMedium may any (copper, wire and wave) for the connectivity and communication.Connectivity is due to the Hardware and communication is due to the Software.
Example
There is a telephone line connected to your home telephone set from PTCL exchange. Isthis a network? No, because there is only connectivity but not communication. If an other  person talks with you, it is communication. Here the both parts fulfil the definition. Now,you can say the “Network”.
 
Q: The signals from telephone exchange are analog signals. If you think that I have digital telephone set in home then why would these signalsanalog?
Ans:
 
In old days when a number is dialed then the exchange had a mechanicalarm. You can listen the sound of that arm as the sound of typewriter on every digits of your number. But there is no sound now a day, only this process is converted into digital.But the signals pass through media as analog.
Avoid Wrong Concept
If you use the modem in between the telephone exchange and your computer, thenmodem converts the analog signals into digital to analog signals,
this concept is wrong.
Modem
The basic purpose of modem is modulation and demodulation.
Modulation & Demodulation
Example
If you take a page and throw away with full capacity then this page (Information) will nottravel more. But if you use a stone covered by paper (Information) then this paper willcovered long distance with high speed. When this paper reached to other side, unwantedinformation (Stone) is removed to get information (Paper).Insertion of carrier (Stone) into information for covering long distance is called“Modulation”. And distraction of carrier unwanted information is called “Demodulation”.
2)OSI (
Open System Interconnection
)Reference Model
OSI Reference Model
 
Reference
The word reference always between two things, there is no reference of only a singlething. The eye’s reference is with eye and the leg’s reference with leg. This referencemeans there is any two devices is involved in this reference not one device. OSIReference Model is not for a single machine, this model is for networks.
OSI
OSI stands for Open System Interconnection.
Q: Why is it said as Open System, why not as Close System?
Ans:
As you know,
“The connectivity of two or more than two devices sothat they can communicate which each other”.
there is not mentioned that medium would be copper, fiber, microwaves or radiowaves for the connectivity. Media may be anything for the connectivity.

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