Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
172Activity
P. 1
Basic Statistics for Processing and Analysis of Data

Basic Statistics for Processing and Analysis of Data

Ratings:

4.97

(291)
|Views: 12,404 |Likes:
Published by M S Sridhar
This unit introduces you to basics of statistics in general and procedures and techniques required for processing and analysing research data in particular. After studying this unit you will be able to (i) appreciate the importance of statistical techniques in research (ii) how to go about processing enormous data collected in the process of research (iii) understand elementary statistical methods and techniques to process and analyse data and (iv) get brief guidance about steps involved in processing and analysis of data.
This unit introduces you to basics of statistics in general and procedures and techniques required for processing and analysing research data in particular. After studying this unit you will be able to (i) appreciate the importance of statistical techniques in research (ii) how to go about processing enormous data collected in the process of research (iii) understand elementary statistical methods and techniques to process and analyse data and (iv) get brief guidance about steps involved in processing and analysis of data.

More info:

Published by: M S Sridhar on Jan 18, 2008
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/13/2013

 
 Klsdo s}l}ds}dos bh{ ndk{l{das lfm bh{ lflntsds hb {asal{oe ml}l
Klsdo _}l}ds}dos bh{ Y{hoassdf` lfm Lflntsds hb Ml}l
G _ _{dmel{
Ealm. Ndk{l{t " Mhoqgaf}l}dhfD_[H _l}annd}a Oaf}{aKlf`lnh{a 1299<0A'gldn: s{dmel{Idslo&`hr&df" gd{nas{dmel{I`gldn&ohg
_T_FHY_D_
_tfhysds ‟ [asal{oe Ga}ehmhnh`t 
<& Df}{hmqo}dhf }h [asal{oe " [asal{oe ga}ehmhnh`t ;& _anao}dhf lfm bh{gqnl}dhf hb {asal{oe y{hknag ?& [asal{oe masd`f lfm ynlf =& Auya{dgaf}ln masd`fs 1& _lgyndf` lfm slgyndf` s}{l}a`t h{ ynlf 2& Galsq{agaf} lfm solndf` }aoefd|qas 0& Ml}l ohnnao}dhf ga}ehms lfm }aoefd|qas 5& ]as}df` hb etyh}easas 4&_}l}ds}doln }aoefd|qas bh{ y{hoassdf` " lflntsds hb ml}l <9& Lflntsds. df}a{y{a}l}dhf lfm m{lpdf` dfba{afoas <<& [ayh{} p{d}df` 
;&9 Hkjao}dras;&<
 
Df}{hmqo}dhf;&<&< _d`fdbdolfoa hb _}l}ds}dos df [asal{oe;&<&; \qlf}d}l}dra lfm \qlnd}l}dra Ml}l;&<&?& Klsdo Ohfoay}s
 
;&<&?&< Ml}l ]tyas
;&<&?&; Rl{dlkna. Auya{dgaf} lfm Etyh}easds
;&<&?&? Fh{gln Mds}{dkq}dhf
;&; Y{hoassdf` " Lflntsds hb Ml}l;&<&<
 
Y{hoassdf` hb Ml}l;&<&<&<
 
Amd}df`;&;&<&;
 
Ohmdf`;&;&<&?
 
Onlssdbdol}dhf;&;&<&=
 
]lkqnl}dhf %]lkqnl{ y{asaf}l}dhf$;&;&<&1
 
@{lyedoln ( Mdl`{lggl}do Y{asaf}l}dhf;&;&;
 
Lflntsds hb Ml}l;&;&;&< Oaf}{ln ]afmafot Galsq{as Galf. Gamdlf lfm Ghma;&;&;&; Mdsya{sdhf galsq{as [lf`a. Galf Mardl}dhf. _}lfml{m Mardl}dhf lfm \ql{}dnas;&;&;&? Galsq{as hb Lstgga}{t;&? _hga _}l}ds}doln ]aoefd|qas;&?&< Oeds|ql{a }as};&?&;
 
}}as}. Z}as}s lfm B }as};&?&?
 
Bdfmdf` [anl}dhfsedys;&?&=
 
H}ea{ Galsq{as lfm ]aoefd|qas;&= _qggl{t;&1 Catph{ms;&2 Lfspa{s }h ehgaph{c ;&0 [aba{afoas
;&9 Hkjao}dras
]eds qfd} df}{hmqoas thq }h klsdos hb s}l}ds}dos df `afa{ln lfm y{hoamq{as lfm }aoefd|qas {a|qd{am bh{  y{hoassdf` lfm lflntsdf` {asal{oe ml}l df yl{}doqnl{& Lb}a{ s}qmtdf` }eds qfd} thq pdnn ka lkna }h %d$lyy{aodl}a }ea dgyh{}lfoa hb s}l}ds}doln }aoefd|qas df {asal{oe %dd$ ehp }h `h lkhq} y{hoassdf` afh{ghqsml}l ohnnao}am df }ea y{hoass hb {asal{oe %ddd$ qfma{s}lfm anagaf}l{t s}l}ds}doln ga}ehms lfm }aoefd|qas}h y{hoass lfm lflntsa ml}l lfm %dr$ `a} k{dab `qdmlfoa lkhq} s}ays dfrhnram df y{hoassdf` lfm lflntsds hb ml}l& Df yl{}doqnl{. l
b}a{ s}qmtdf` }eds qfd} thq sehqnm ka lkna }h:d&
 
H{`lfdza hksa{rl}dhfs }h ldm qfma{s}lfmdf` hb pel} thq elra hksa{ram&dd&
 
Ohfs}{qo} }lnndas b{hg {lp ml}l&ddd&
 
Ohfs}{qo} sdgyna b{a|qafot mds}{dkq}dhfs b{hg }lnndas&dr&
 
Lkna }h agynht sdgyna ohmdf` }h }ea ml}l&r&
 
Qsa ya{oaf}l`as }h ohgyl{a mds}{dkq}dhfs&rd&
 
]{lfsnl}a b{a|qafot mds}{dkq}dhfs df}h ya{oaf}l`a mds}{dkq}dhfs&
rdd&
 
Oelf`a sdgyna %mdso{a}a ml}l$ b{a|qafot mds}{dkq}dhfs df}h oqgqnl}dra mds}{dkq}dhfs&
 G _ _{dmel{ 
<
 
 Klsdo s}l}ds}dos bh{ ndk{l{das lfm bh{ lflntsds hb {asal{oe ml}l
rddd&
 
Dmaf}dbt `{hqyam ml}l mds}{dkq}dhfs. }{lfsnl}a sdgyna mds}{dkq}dhfs df}h `{hqyam mds}{dkq}dhfs3Ohfs}{qo} hb `{hqyam ml}l mds}{dkq}dhfs&du&
 
Ohfs}{qo} b{a|qafot yhnt`hfs. eds}h`{lgs lfm h}ea{ oel{}s bh{ sdgyna %mdso{a}a$ lfm `{hqyam ml}lmds}{dkq}dhfs&
u&
 
Qfma{s}lfm }ea ohfoay}s
oaf}{ln }afmafot. mdsya{sdhf lfm lstgga}{t&ud&
 
Ohgyq}a rlnqas bh{ }ea ghma. galf. gamdlf. {lf`a. galf mardl}dhf. lfm s}lfml{mmardl}dhf bh{ sdgyna %mdso{a}a$ lfm `{hqyam %ohf}dfqhqs$ ml}l lfm qfma{s}lfm }ead{ qsalfm ndgd}l}dhfs&udd&
 
Ma}a{gdfa }ea gdmyhdf} hb sdgyna %mdso{a}a$ lfm `{hqyam ml}l ol}a`h{das&uddd&
 
Ohgyl{a }ph mdbba{af} mds}{dkq}dhfs lfm cfhp pel} mdbba{afoas gd`e} auds} ka}paaf}eag klsam hf `draf rlnqas bh{ oaf}{ln }afmafot lfm mdsya{sdhf&udr&
 
Maso{dka l mds}{dkq}dhf df }a{gs hb scapamfass lfm cq{}hsds&
;&<
 
Df}{hmqo}dhf
_}l}ds}dos ds kh}e sdf`qnl{ lfm ynq{ln&
 
Ls ynq{ln d} galfs fqga{doln blo}s sts}agl}dolnnt ohnnao}amlfm ls sdf`qnl{ d} ds }ea sodafoa hb ohnnao}df`. onlssdbtdf` lfm qsdf` s}l}ds}dos&Pel} s}l}ds}dos mhas 8<&
 
Aflknas }h y{asaf} blo}s hf l y{aodsa mabdfd}a bh{g }el} eanys df y{hya{ ohgy{aeafsdhf hb pel} ds s}l}am& Aulo} blo}s l{a gh{a ohfrdfodf` }elf rl`qa s}l}agaf}s&;&
 
Eanys }h ohfmafsdf` }ea glss hb ml}l df}h l bap fqga{doln galsq{as. d&a&. sqggl{dsasml}l lfm y{asaf}s l galfdf`bqn hra{lnn dfbh{gl}dhf lkhq} l glss hb ml}l&?&
 
Eanys df bdfmdf` {anl}dhfsedy ka}paaf mdbba{af} blo}h{s df }as}df` }ea rlndmd}t hb lssqgam{anl}dhfsedy&=&
 
Eanys df y{amdo}df` }ea oelf`as df hfa blo}h{ mqa }h }ea oelf`as df lfh}ea{ blo}h{&1&
 
Eanys df bh{gqnl}dhf hb ynlfs lfm yhndodas pedoe {a|qd{a }ea cfhpnam`a hb bq{}ea{ }{afms3_}l}ds}dos ynlts rd}ln {hna df maodsdhf glcdf`
;&<&< _d`fdbdolfoa hb _}l}ds}dos df [asal{oe
_}l}ds}dos. klsdolnnt. eanys }h h{`lfdsa lfm sqggl{dsa fqga{doln dfbh{gl}dhf. }h {anl}a bdfmdf`s hf l sglnnslgyna }h }ea nl{`a yhyqnl}dhf. }h }as} etyh}easds. }h auynldf rl{dl}dhfs. }h kqdnm ghman lfm y{amdo} }ea{asqn}. }h {lfmhgdsa }ea slgyna. a}o& _odafoa hb s}l}ds}dos olffh} ka d`fh{am kt {asal{oea{& D} ds lf assaf}dln}hhn bh{ masd`fdf` {asal{oe. y{hoassdf` " lflntsdf` ml}l lfm m{lpdf` dfba{afoas ( ohfonqsdhfs& D} ds lnsholnnam l mhqkna am`am }hhn. ls d} olf ka lkqsam lfm gdsqsam& D} olf ka lkqsam pd}e yhh{ ml}l ohqynampd}e shyeds}dol}am s}l}ds}doln }aoefd|qas }h hk}ldf qf{andlkna {asqn}s lfm d} olf ka gdsqsam peaf ehfas}.el{m blo}s l{a ohgkdfam pd}e yhh{(dflyy{hy{dl}a s}l}ds}doln }aoefd|qas }h o{al}a blnsa dgy{assdhfs lfmohfonqsdhfs& L fqgka{ hb bqfft aulgynas ndca lyyntdf` ya{oaf}l`a bh{ ra{t sglnn slgyna. qsdf` p{hf`lra{l`a. ynltdf` pd}e y{hklkdnd}das. dflyy{hy{dl}a solna. h{d`df lfm y{hyh{}dhf ka}paaf h{mdfl}a "lksodssl. bqfft oh{{anl}dhfs ndca gdfm lfm kalq}t. hfamdgafsdhfln bd`q{as. qfgaf}dhfam klsa. a}o&. olf ka saaf df nd}a{l}q{a&_}l}ds}dos bh{ {asal{oea{ olf ka k{hlmnt `{hqyam df}h:L& Maso{dy}dra s}l}ds}dos % " olqsln lflntsds$ohfoa{fam pd}e maranhygaf} hb oa{}ldf dfmdoas b{hg }ea {lp ml}l lfm olqsln lflntsds bh{ pedoe }ea bhnnhpdf` lsyao}s hb s}l}ds}dos l{a {a|qd{am&<& Qfdmdgafsdhf lflntsds %ghs}nt hfa rl{dlkna$%D$ Oaf}{ln }afmafot  galf. gamdlf. ghma. @ahga}{do Galf %@G$ " El{ghfdo Galf%EG$%dd$ Mdsya{sdhf  rl{dlfoa. s}lfml{m mardl}dhf . galf mardl}dhf " {lf`a%ddd$ Lstgga}{t %_capafass$ " Cq{}hsds%dr$ [anl}dhfsedy  Yal{shf—s y{hmqo} ghgaf} oh{{anl}dhf. _yal{glf—s {lfc h{ma{ oh{{anl}dhf lfm Tqna's ohabbdodaf} hb lsshodl}dhf%r$ H}ea{s  Hfa plt Lflntsds hb Rl{dl}dhf %LFHRL$. dfmau fqgka{s. }dga sa{daslflntsds. sdgyna oh{{anl}dhf " {a`{assdhf
 G _ _{dmel{ 
;
 
 Klsdo s}l}ds}dos bh{ ndk{l{das lfm bh{ lflntsds hb {asal{oe ml}l
;& Kdrl{dl}a lflntsds%D$ _dgyna {a`{assdhf " oh{{anl}dhf%dd$ Lsshodl}dhf hb l}}{dkq}as%ddd$ ]phplt LFHRL?& Gqn}drl{dl}a lflntsds%D$ Gqn}dyna {a`{assdhf " oh{{anl}dhf ( yl{}dln oh{{anl}dhf%dd$ Gqn}dyna mdso{dgdflf} lflntsds%ddd$ Gqn}dLFHRL%dr$ Olfhfdoln lflntsds%r$ Blo}h{ lflntsds. onqs}a{ lflntsds. a}o&%Ls bl{ ls }eds qfd} ds ohfoa{fam. thq pdnn ka s}qmtdf` sanao}am }aoefd|qas nds}am qfma{ ―Qfdmdgafsdhflnlflntsds$&
K& Dfba{af}dln %slgyndf` ( s}l}ds}doln$ Lflntsds
 %qsam df }as}df` hb etyh}easds$ ds ohfoa{fam pd}e }ea  y{hoass hb `afa{lndzl}dhf. yl{}doqnl{nt%l$ as}dgl}dhf hb yl{lga}a{ rlnqas%yhdf} lfm df}a{rln as}dgl}as$%k$  }as}df` hb etyh}easds% qsdf` yl{lga}{do ( s}lfml{m }as}s lfm fhfyl{lga}{do ( mds}{dkq}dhfb{aa }as}s$ lfm%o$ m{lpdf` dfba{afoasohfsds}df` hb  ml}l y{hoassdf`. lflntsds. y{asaf}l}dhf %df }lkna. oel{} h{ `{lye$ " df}a{y{a}l}dhf %ds }h auyhqfm }ea galfdf`$ sehqnm nalm }h m{lpdf` dfba{afoa& Df h}ea{ ph{ms. rlndml}dhf hb etyh}easas lfm {alndsl}dhf hb hkjao}dras hb {asal{oe pd}e {asyao} }h %l$ {anl}dhfsedy ka}paaf rl{dlknas%k$ mdsohra{df` l blo} %o $ as}lkndsedf` l `afa{ln h{ qfdra{sln nlp l{a dfrhnram df dfba{af}dln lflntsds&]ea ohfoay}s yl{lga}{do lfm fhfyl{lga}{do }as}s jqs} gaf}dhfam {aoq{ |qd}a hb}af lfm faam }h kaqfma{s}hhm oh{{ao}nt&
Yl{lga}{do ( s}lfml{m }as}s
{a|qd{a galsq{agaf}s a|qdrlnaf} }h l} nals} lfdf}a{rln solna lfm lssqga oa{}ldf y{hya{}das hb yl{af} yhyqnl}dhf ndca d$ hksa{rl}dhfs l{a b{hg l fh{gln yhyqnl}dhf dd$ nl{`a slgyna ddd$ yhyqnl}dhf yl{lga}a{s ndca galf. rl{dlfoa. a}o&
 
Fhf'yl{lga}{do ( mds}{dkq}dhf'b{aa }as}s
mh fh} mayafm hf lft lssqgy}dhfs lkhq} y{hya{}das( yl{lga}a{s hb }ea yl{af} yhyqnl}dhf& Ghs} fhfyl{lga}{do }as}s lssqga fhgdfln h{ h{mdfln ml}l& Fhfyl{lga}{do }as}s {a|qd{a gh{ahksa{rl}dhfs }elf yl{lga}{do }as}s }h loedara }easlga sdza hb ]tya D lfm ]tya DD a{{h{s %lsauynldfam df }ea lmjloaf} }lkna bh{ `draf Fqnnetyh}easds
E
9
$
&
 
]eds qfd} kadf` anagaf}l{t df}{hmqo}dhf. hfnt klsdo ohfoay}s l{a y{asaf}am pd}e bap }aoefd|qasbh{ l ka`dffa{& ]easa klsdo ohfoay}s l{a lnshqsabqn df h}ea{ qfd}s ohfoa{fdf` auya{dgaf}lnmasd`f. slgyndf`. galsq{agaf} lfm solndf`}aoefd|qas. }as}df` hb etyh}easds ls pann lslflntsds. df}a{y{a}l}dhf lfm m{lpdf` dfba{afoas&
Oh{{ao}maodsdhf]tya DD a{{h{%
λ
a{{h{$E
9
%blnsa$
 
]tya D a{{h{%
μ
a{{h{$Oh{{ao}maodsdhfE
9
%}{qa$[ajao} E
9
Looay} E
9
Maodsdhf
Maodsdhf
;&<&; \qlf}d}l}dra lfm \qlnd}l}dra Ml}l
:L |qlf}d}l}dra h{ fqga{doln ml}l ds lf auy{assdhf hb l y{hya{}t h{ |qlnd}t df fqga{doln }a{gs& Df h}ea{ ph{ms. d} ds ml}l galsq{am lfm auy{assam df |qlf}d}t& D} aflknas %d$ y{aodsa galsq{agaf} %dd$ cfhpdf`}{afms h{ oelf`as hra{ }dga. lfm %ddd$ ohgyl{dshf hb }{afms h{ dfmdrdmqln qfd}s& Hf }ea h}ea{ elfm.|qlnd}l}dra %h{ ol}a`h{doln $ ml}l dfrhnras |qlnd}t h{ cdfm pd}e sqkjao}drd}t& Peaf baan " bnlrhq{ hb }easd}ql}dhf kaohga dgyh{}lf}. {asal{oea{s {ash{} }h |qlnd}l}dra ml}l %shga }dgas olnnam l}}{dkq}as$&
\qlnd}l}dra ml}l maso{dka l}}{dkq}as hb l sdf`na h{ l `{hqy hb ya{shfs }el} ds dgyh{}lf} }h {aoh{m ls looq{l}ant ls yhssdkna araf }ehq`e }eat olffh} ka galsq{am df |qlf}d}l}dra }a{gs
&
Gh{a }dga" abbh{}s l{a faamam }h ohnnao} " y{hoass |qlnd}l}dra ml}l& _qoe ml}l l{a fh} lgaflkna bh{ s}l}ds}doln {qnas" glfdyqnl}dhfs& Ls sldm lkhra. solndf` }aoefd|qas eany ohfra{}df` shga |qlnd}l}dra ml}l df}h|qlf}d}l}dra ml}l& Qsqln ml}l {amqo}dhf. stf}easds lfm ynh}}df` }{afms l{a {a|qd{am kq} mdbba{ sqks}lf}dlnntdf olsa hb |qlnd}l}dra ml}l& Lkhra lnn. au}{lyhnl}dhf hb bdfmdf` ds mdbbdoqn} df olsa hb |qlnd}l}dra ml}l& D}lnsh olnns bh{ safsd}dra df}a{y{a}l}dhf " o{al}dra y{asaf}l}dhf& Bh{ aulgyna. |qh}l}dhf b{hg df}a{rdaps.hyaf {agl{cs df |qas}dhffld{as. olsa eds}h{das k{df`df` ardmafoa. ohf}af} lflntsds hb ra{kl}dg gl}a{dln.a}o& y{hrdma lkqfmlf} |qlnd}l}dra ml}l {a|qd{df` safsd}dra qsa&
 G _ _{dmel{ 
?

Activity (172)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
elite76 liked this
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
bhar4tp liked this
Ile Pi liked this
allovid liked this
ciarmel liked this
crisjava liked this
masrifai liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->