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Integrated Marine Disaster Risk Management in Xiamen

Integrated Marine Disaster Risk Management in Xiamen

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ICM was initiated in Xiamen in 1994, focused on integration of science into management decisionmaking for sustainable development, improving coordination between various management sectors, public participation, integrated sea-area use management and law enforcement. Integral to the framework of sustainable development of coastal areas, natural and man-made hazard prevention and management was identified as a key area in coastal profiling and response actions were included in Xiamen Coastal Strategy.
ICM was initiated in Xiamen in 1994, focused on integration of science into management decisionmaking for sustainable development, improving coordination between various management sectors, public participation, integrated sea-area use management and law enforcement. Integral to the framework of sustainable development of coastal areas, natural and man-made hazard prevention and management was identified as a key area in coastal profiling and response actions were included in Xiamen Coastal Strategy.

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08/24/2012

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management and law enorcement (
Box 2
). Integral to theramework o sustainable development o coastal areas (
Figure 2
),natural and man-made hazard prevention and management wasidentifed as a key area in coastal profling and response actionswere included in Xiamen Coastal Strategy.
Improving Emergency Response Plans
In contrast to the plan specifcally or typhoons and oods, theXiamen Municipal Overall Public Emergencies Plan wasdeveloped in 2004 to eectively manage various publicemergencies. Under the ramework o the plan, all relevantdepartments should ormulate their special emergencyresponse plans pertinent to their mandates. The plans relevantto marine disasters are listed in
Table 1
. These plans clariy theresponsibilities o the leading departments and the supportingdepartments. Annual drills and exercises are carried out underthe supervision o the government according to the plans. Manyo the original plans have since been updated and improved,incorporating experiences and lessons rom theirimplementation.
Before 1980, Xiamen was mainly concerned with city construction andfocused on the positive effects of urban development. The government andthe public lacked understanding of coastal hazards and its management,including prevention and preparedness. The management of hazardswas less developed than the management of economic development.Investments in environmental protection and risk prevention were few andthe monitoring system had not yet been established. Lack of coordinationbetween departments often resulted in ineffectiveness, waste of resources,and management confusion when disasters arose.Starting in 1994, the Xiamen Municipal Government established andimplemented integrated coastal management (ICM) with the support of theGEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme for the Prevention and Management
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in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia or PEMSEA).
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the integration of science into management decisionmaking, improvedcoordination between various management sectors, facilitated publicparticipation, and integrated sea-area use management and law enforcement.
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and strategy development, hazard management still lacked a powerfulcommanding system so it could not effectively focus resources spread outover various sectors in a timely manner during times of disaster.
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However, this changed after 1999. That year, Typhoon No. 9914, thestrongest typhoon (in terms of rainfall and winds) to have struck Xiamen since1959, caused direct economic losses of about 1.938 billion RMB (See Box 1).Electrical power, water supply, gas supply, some telecommunication networkswere interrupted and many city roads were impassable. Most production
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well as tens of thousands of square meters of offshore farms were destroyed.
Box 2.The History o Xiamen Integrated Marine Risk and Disasters Management.Figure 2.PEMSEA’s Framework or Sustainable Development o Coastal Areas through ICM.
 
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Implements emergency rescue actions accordingto the strength of the typhoon, and coordinates theactivities of emergency rescue and disaster relief during severe weather events
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by relevant sectors in response to marineemergencies to effectively reduce the harm to
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Implements emergency rescue actions accordingto the degree of severity of shipping pollution,
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departmentsEstablishes early warning and emergencyresponse mechanism, improves forecastingof coming storms, and ensures that responsemeasures can be done quickly and effectively tominimize the storm surge disaster lossSets up the early warning mechanism andconducts emergency rescue actions according tothe degree of severity of red tides and coordinatesthe relevant emergency security support activitiesto reduce losses due to red tide Addresses prevention and rapid response toenvironmental pollution and ecological destructionemergenciesEstablishes a leadership team to coordinate thepreparation for typhoons and storms in Gaoqi port,implements safety measures during typhoons, andconducts emergency rescue actions according tothe degree of severity of typhoons
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Typhoons and Floodings
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for Typhoons
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First adoptedin1999
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AgencyContents
Water Resource BureauOceans and FisheriesBureauMaritime Affairs BureauOceans and FisheriesBureauOceans and FisheriesBureauEnvironmental ProtectionBureauOceans and FisheriesBureau
3URJUDP3ODQ
 Year 
Table 1.Plans related to marine disasters.Figure 3.Specifc Working Groups or Major Public Emergency Response in Xiamen.
Putting in Place an Organizational Arrangement
 The Xiamen Municipal Government established a PublicEmergencies Committee responsible or leading, organizingand directing responses to public emergencies, and supervisingrelevant departments to develop preventive measures,emergency preparedness and response, rehabilitation andreconstruction in an eective and timely manner. At the sametime, or major public emergencies, the committee has establishedseveral working groups or particular tasks during emergencyresponses, providing clarifcation on main tasks and supportingroles or various departments (
Figure 3
).

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