Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
×
P. 1
Fast and efficient vanishing point detection in indoor images - ICPR, 2012

Fast and efficient vanishing point detection in indoor images - ICPR, 2012

Ratings: (0)|Views: 140|Likes:
A method for detecting a vanishing point in structured images is presented. The method relies on the detection of line segments from an edge map by representing clusters of edge points by the long axes of highly eccentric ellipses. The extracted lines provide a set of candidate vanishing points computed by their intersections, which are assigned weights proportional to the lengths of the line segments they belong to. Then, a voting scheme is applied through an accumulator array generated by griding the image frame. The votes of each grid cell are weighted by the Pi-sigmoid kernel allowing
cells to contribute to their neighbors.
A method for detecting a vanishing point in structured images is presented. The method relies on the detection of line segments from an edge map by representing clusters of edge points by the long axes of highly eccentric ellipses. The extracted lines provide a set of candidate vanishing points computed by their intersections, which are assigned weights proportional to the lengths of the line segments they belong to. Then, a voting scheme is applied through an accumulator array generated by griding the image frame. The votes of each grid cell are weighted by the Pi-sigmoid kernel allowing
cells to contribute to their neighbors.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Demetris Gerogiannis on Aug 24, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

12/19/2013

pdf

text

original

 
B`t{ `hk lbffdjlh{ r`hjtmjhf unjh{ kl{ld{jnh jh jhknnq jg`flt
Klgl{qjnt Flqnfj`hhjt) Dmqjt{numnqnt Hjon|
) @qjt{jkjt Ijo`t
 Klu`q{glh{ nb Dngu|{lq Tdjlhdl) \hjrlqtj{z nb Jn`hhjh`) Fqlldl Lg`ji3
{
kflqnfj`)dhjon|)`qiz
w
Edt(|nj(fq 
@at{q`d{
 @ gl{mnk bnq kl{ld{jhf ` r`hjtmjhf unjh{ jh t{q|d'{|qlk jg`flt jt uqltlh{lk( [ml gl{mnk qlijlt nh {ml kl'{ld{jnh nb ijhl tlfglh{t bqng `h lkfl g`u az qluqltlh{'jhf di|t{lqt nb lkfl unjh{t az {ml inhf `}lt nb mjfmizlddlh{qjd liijutlt( [ml l}{q`d{lk ijhlt uqnrjkl ` tl{ nb d`hkjk`{l r`hjtmjhf unjh{t dngu|{lk az {mljq jh{lqtld'{jnht) vmjdm `ql `ttjfhlk vljfm{t uqnunq{jnh`i {n {mlilhf{mt nb {ml ijhl tlfglh{t {mlz alinhf {n( [mlh) `rn{jhf tdmlgl jt `uuijlk {mqn|fm `h `dd|g|i`{nq `qq`zflhlq`{lkazfqjkjhf{mljg`flbq`gl( [mlrn{ltnbl`dmfqjk dlii `ql vljfm{lk az {ml
Υ
'tjfgnjk olqhli `iinvjhfdliit {n dnh{qja|{l {n {mljq hljfmanqt(
0 Jh{qnk|d{jnh
M|g`h'g`kl tdlhlt) t|dm `t qn`kt) a|jikjhft `hk{mljq b`d`klt nq jhknnq dnqqjknq an|hk`qjlt m`rl ` i`qflh|galq nb u`q`iili ijhlt jh {ml 4K tu`dl( Jh {ml bq`gl'vnqo nb ` ujhmnil d`glq` gnkli) {vn u`q`iili ijhlt `qluqncld{lk nh{n ` u`jq nb dnhrlqfjhf ijhlt jh {ml 1K jg'`fl tu`dl uqnrjklk {m`{ {mljq 4K ui`hl jt hn{ bqnh{n'u`q`iili {n {ml jg`fl ui`hl( [ml dnggnh unjh{ nb jh{lq'tld{jnh nb `ii 4K u`q`iili ijhlt -flhlq`iiz alinhfjhf {nkjbblqlh{ ui`hlt* jh {ml 1K jg`fl jt d`iilk {ml r`hjtmjhfunjh{( [ml kl{ld{jnh nb ` r`hjtmjhf unjh{ jh `h jg`fljt ` dq|dj`i t{lu jh g`hz dngu|{lq rjtjnh `uuijd`{jnht)ijol qnan{ h`rjf`{jnh) d`glq` d`ijaq`{jnh) tjhfil rjlv4K tdlhl qldnht{q|d{jnh `hk untl lt{jg`{jnh(Jh {ml qli`{lk ij{lq`{|ql) {mlql `ql {vn g`jh d`{l'fnqjlt nb gl{mnkt bnq r`hjtmjhf unjh{ kl{ld{jnh( [mlql`ql {ldmhjp|lt qlp|jqjhf ohnvilkfl nb {ml jh{qjhtjd u`'q`gl{lqt nb {ml d`glq`) vmjdm l}uinj{ {ml hn{jnh nb 4Ku`q`iilijtg `hk uqngjhlh{ t{q|d{|qlt nb {ml tdlhl nq'
[mjt vnqo jt dn'ffh`hdlk az {ml L|qnul`h \hjnh -L|qnul`h Ql'fjnh`i Klrlinuglh{ B|hk' LQKB* `hk Fqllo h`{jnh`i b|hkt {mqn|fm{ml Nulq`{jnh`i Uqnfq`g [MLTT@IZ' G@JHI@HK FQLLDL @HKLUJQ\T'1556'1504 nb {ml H`{jnh`i T{q`{lfjd Qlblqlhdl Bq`glvnqo -HTQB 1556'1504*
{mnfnh`i {n l`dm n{mlq) `itn d`iilk
G`hm`{{`h kjqld'{jnht
_;)<W( [mlql `ql `itn {ldmhjp|lt `tt|gjhf hn ohnvilkfl nb {ml jh{lqh`i d`glq` u`q`gl{lqt) t|dm `t{ml gl{mnk jh _1W |tjhf {ml Mligmni{s uqjhdjuil bnq jg'`fl u`q{j{jnhjhf) {ml L}uld{`{jnh'G`}jgjs`{jnh -LG*bq`glvnqo `knu{lk jh _6W nq {ml hnh'j{lq`{jrl `ifnqj{mga`tlk nh dnhtlht|t tl{t _00W(Jh dnh{q`t{ {n {ml `anrl gl{mnkt) vmjdm g`z a`tl{mljq lt{jg`{jnh jh {ml l}jt{lhdl nb {mqll nq{mnfnh`ir`hjtmjhfunjh{t) jg`flt`dp|jqlkjht{q|d{|qlklhrjqnh'glh{t t|dm `t qn`kt nq dnqqjknqt `ql ` tuldjffd d`{lfnqzvmlql {ml kl{ld{jnh nb ` tjhfil r`hjtmjhf unjh{ g`z alt|bffdjlh{ bnq {ml |hklqijhlk `uuijd`{jnh -l(f( rjtjnh'a`tlk qnan{ gn{jnh `inhf ` dnqqjknq*( [ml flhlq`i t{q`{'lfz dnhtjt{t jh u`q{j{jnhjhf {ml jg`fl jh{n `dd|g|i`'{nq dliit dniild{jhf rn{lt bqng {ml ijhl tlfglh{t m`rjhf{mljq jh{lqtld{jnh jh {ml tuldjffd dlii( [ml kl{ld{jnh nb ul`ot jh {ml `dd|g|i`{nq tu`dl uqnrjklt {ml r`hjtmjhfunjh{t _=)05W( Jh {mjt u`ulq) ` gl{mnk bnq kl{ld{jhf ` tjhfil r`hjtm'jhf unjh{ jh t{q|d{|qlk lhrjqnhglh{t jt uqltlh{lk( [mlgl{mnk dnhtjt{t {vn g`jh t{lut( @{ ffqt{) ijhl tlfglh{t`ql kl{ld{lk |tjhf {ml kjqld{ tuij{'`hk'glqfl -KT`G*`ifnqj{mg _2W vmjdm `iinvt {ml qna|t{ kl{ld{jnh nb ijhltlrlh jh d`tlt nb unjh{t klrj`{jhf bqng {ml ijhl |hklqF`|ttj`h hnjtl `tt|gu{jnht( [mjt gnklijhf `iinvt {nd`u{|ql unjh{t vmjdm vn|ik al qlcld{lk `t hnjtl jh `t{`hk`qk bq`glvnqo ijol {ml Mn|fm {q`htbnqg( Tld'nhkiz) ` rn{jhf t{lu jt `uuijlk {mqn|fm ` olqhli) vmlqld`hkjk`{l r`hjtmjhf unjh{t `ql `ttjfhlk vljfm{t uqnunq'{jnh`i {n {ml ilhf{mt nb {ml ijhl tlfglh{t {mlz alinhf {n([mlqlbnql) inhflq ijhl tlfglh{t vmjdm `ql gnql uqna`'ail jh jhknnq lhrjqnhglh{t -l(f( {ml jh{lqtld{jnh nb v`ii`hk fqn|hk* `ql gnql uqna`ail {n dnh{qja|{l {n {ml kl'{lqgjh`{jnh nb {ml r`hjtmjhf unjh{(
1 R`hjtmjhf Unjh{ Kl{ld{jnh
Fjrlh `h jhknnq tdlhl -l(f( ` dnqqjknq*) {ml ffqt{ t{lunb {ml gl{mnk dnhtjt{t jh kl{ld{jhf {ml lkflt nb {ml jg'`fl( [mlqlbnql) {ml uqna`ajijt{jd an|hk`qjlt `ql ffqt{
 
dngu|{lk _:W {mn|fm jh tjguilq) hnh {l}{|qlk lhrjqnh'glh{t) {ml n|{u|{ nb {ml t{`hk`qk a|{ lt{`aijtmlk D`hhzlkfl kl{ld{nq kl{ld{nq _4W jt flhlq`iiz `ddlu{`ail([ml hl}{ t{lu dnhtjt{t jh ff{{jhf ijhl tlfglh{t {n {mll}{q`d{lk lkflt( [n {mjt lhk) n|q qldlh{iz uqnuntlkkjqld{ tuij{'`hk'glqfl -KT`G* `ifnqj{mg _2W v`t `u'uijlk( [ml q`{jnh`i nb {m`{ `ifnqj{mg jt a`tlk nh {ml`tt|gu{jnh {m`{ 1K unjh{t g`z al dnhtjklqlk dniijhl`qjb {ml gjhjg|g ljflhr`i|l nb {mljq dnr`qj`hdl g`{qj} jttg`iilq {m`h ` uqlklffhlk {mqltmnik( Az {mltl gl`ht)ijhl tlfglh{t `ql gnklilk az {ml g`cnq `}lt nb liijutltvj{m rlqz mjfm lddlh{qjdj{z d`u{|qjhf unjh{t vmjdm g`zijl jh {ml hljfmanqmnnk nb {ml ijhl tlfglh{ k|l {n hnjtlnq jii|gjh`{jnh dm`hflt( [mqn|fm `h j{lq`{jrl tdmlgl)az jhj{j`ijsjhf {ml `ifnqj{mg vj{m nhl di|t{lq dnh{`jhjhf`ii {ml 1K lkfl unjh{t) lrlqz di|t{lq vmntl liijutl knlthn{t`{jtbz{ml`bnqlglh{jnhlk{mqltmnikjttuij{jh{n{vndi|t{lqt( [ml uqndlk|ql jt qlul`{lk |h{ji {mlql jt hn li'ijutl {n tuij{( [mlh) ` glqfl uqndltt bniinvt jh nqklq{n dngajhl hljfmanqjhf di|t{lqt vj{m dniijhl`q g`cnq`}lt {n qlk|dl {ml dnguil}j{z nb {ml gnkli( [ml ijhltlfglh{ nb {ml dnqqltunhkjhf di|t{lq jt gnklilk az {mlg`cnq `}jt) j(l( {ml ljflhrld{nq `ttndj`{lk vj{m {ml g`}'jg|g ljflhr`i|l( Bjf|ql0t|gg`qjslt {ml KT`G `ifn'qj{mg( [ml unjh{t jh qlk dnqqltunhk {n {ml uqna`ajijt{jdan|hk`qz uj}lit _:W nb {ml jg`fl jh fff|ql0-`*( -`* -a*-d* -k*-l* -b*
Bjf|ql 0( -`* Nqjfjh`i dninq jg`fl( -a*'-l*[ml ffqt{ bn|q j{lq`{jnht nb {ml tuij{ uqn'dltt `hk -b* {ml ffh`i ijhl tlfglh{t(
@b{lq {ml kl{lqgjh`{jnh nb {ml ijhl tlfglh{t jh {lqgtnb {ml inhf `}lt nb mjfmiz lddlh{qjd liijutlt) {ml tl{
ru
nb d`hkjk`{l r`hjtmjhf unjh{t jt dnht{q|d{lk az dngu|{'jhf `ii {ml u`jqvjtl jh{lqtld{jnh unjh{t al{vllh `ii {mlijhlt( [n b|q{mlq jguqnrl {ml lbffdjlhdz nb {ml gl{mnk)jh{lqtld{jnhunjh{t{m`{ijln|{tjkl{mljg`flui`hldn|ikal jfhnqlk a|{ {mjt jtt|l jt nu{jnh`i `hk klulhkt nh {mltuldjffd `uuijd`{jnh( Bnq l}`guil) jh ` dnqqjknq) {ml r`h'jtmjhf unjh{ ijlt vj{mjh {ml jg`fl ui`jh `hk jh{|j{jrliz{ml r`hjtmjhf ijhl |t|`iiz `uul`qt tnglvmlql jh {mlrjlvlq‚t mnqjsnh( Nh {ml n{mlq m`hk) jb {ml `ifnqj{mgjt {n al |tlk az ` qnan{ h`rjf`{jnh tzt{lg) {ml kl{ld'{jnh nb {ml r`hjtmjhf unjh{ n|{tjkl {ml jg`fl ui`hl g`zjhkjd`{l `h `aq|u{ {|qh([mlhdl) ` vljfm{
v
-
u
* 7
y
i
u
0
yy
i
u
1
y
jt `ttjfhlk {n l`dmunjh{
u
ru
vmjdm jt lp|`i {n {ml uqnk|d{ nb {mlilhf{mt
y
i
u
0
y
`hk
y
i
u
1
y
nb {ml {vn ijhl tlfglh{t vmntl jh'{lqtld{jnh jt {ml d`hkjk`{l r`hjtmjhf unjh{
u
( [m|t) `d`hkjk`{l r`hjtmjhf unjh{ uqnk|dlk az tmnq{ tlfglh{t)nq nhl inhf `hk nhl tmnq{ tlfglh{) jt `{{qja|{lk vj{m `tg`ii vljfm{(Jh {ml ffh`i t{lu nb n|q vnqofinv) {ml r`hjtmjhf unjh{jt dngu|{lk az tlild{jhf nhl nb {ml d`hkjk`{l unjh{t)vmjdm jt `dmjlrlk {mqn|fm ` rn{jhf tdmlgl( [mjt t{lu jttjgji`q jh tujqj{ {n {ml `uuqn`dm uqltlh{lk jh _05W( Mnv'lrlq) {ml g`jh kjbblqlhdl vj{m qltuld{ {n {m`{ gl{mnk jt{m`{) jh n|q `ifnqj{mg) l`dm ijhl tlfglh{ rn{lt nhiz bnq{ml jh{lqtld{jnh unjh{t alinhfjhf {n j{ vmjil jh _05W `ijhl tlfglh{ rn{lt bnq lrlqz d`hkjk`{l r`hjtmjhf unjh{-lrlh jb j{ knlt hn{ alinhf {n {ml tlfglh{*(Jh ` rn{jhf tdmlgl) `h jgunq{`h{ b`d{nq jt {ml tjsl nb {ml `dd|g|i`{nq `qq`z ajht) vmjdm jh n|q d`tl jt ` fqjkdnrlqjhf {ml jg`fl t|uunq{
F
_5
)
F
v
W
Ö
_5
)
F
m
W
Q
1
( [ml fqjk jt |hjbnqgiz kjrjklk jh{n lp|`iiz tjslkdliit
A
j
)
j
7 0
)((()H 
) |tjhf ` td`ijhf b`d{nq
τ
-5
)
0W
jguntjhf ` ajh tjsl nb 
_
τF
v
)τF
m
W
(Jh nqklq {n `ttjfh vljfm{t {n l`dm d`hkjk`{l r`hjtm'jhf unjh{ uqltlh{ jh ` fjrlh ajh) ` olqhli b|hd{jnh dlh'{lqlk `{ l`dm `qq`z ajh jt lguinzlk( [n {mjt lhk) ` 1K
Υ
'Tjfgnjk olqhli jt `uuijlk {n l`dm ajh _0W) jguntjhf{m|t ` b|ssz dnhdlu{ {n {ml anqklqt nb {ml dlii( [ml t|u'unq{ nb ` 0K
Υ
'Tjfgnjk olqhli3
o
-
}
* 70
a
`
_
00 /
l
ο
-
}
`
*
00 /
l
ο
-
}
a
*
W
)
-0*vj{m
ο 8
5
) vmjdm jt klujd{lk jh fff|ql1) `uuqn}jg`{lt` |hjbnqg olqhli vmntl anqklqt `ql b|ssjfflk jh nqklq{n `rnjk `aq|u{ dm`hflt( [m|t) unjh{t |hklq {ml ui`{l`|dnh{qja|{l lp|`iiz vj{m {mljq rn{lt vmjil {ml dnh{qja|'{jnh nb unjh{t izjhf `{ {ml l}{qlgj{jlt b`iit nbb p|jdoiza|{ j{ knlt hn{ aldngl slqn) klulhkjhf nh {ml r`i|l nb {ml u`q`gl{lq
ο
( [ml i`qflq {ml r`i|l nb 
ο
{ml iltt b|ssz{ml olqhli anqklqt aldngl `hk dnhtlp|lh{iz {ml lkfltnb {ml olqhli `ql rlqz t{llu -fff(1*( Az {mltl gl`ht)
 
{ml d`u{|ql qlfjnh nb {ml olqhli `iinvt unjh{t bqng {mlhljfmanqjhf ajh {n dnh{qja|{l vj{m ` qli`{jrliz inv hnh'slqn vljfm{( @ 1K
Υ
'Tjfgnjk olqhli
Υ
t
-
}
?
`
)
a
)ο
*
Bjf|ql 1(
Υ
t
-
}
?
`
)
a
)ο
*
bnq
ο
7 <5
`hk
ο
7 0
(
vj{m u`q`gl{lqt
`
7 -
ΰ
0
)ΰ
1
*
)
a
7 -
a
0
)a
1
*
) vj{m
ΰ
j
a
j
) `hk
ο
jt ` tlu`q`ail b|hd{jnh {m`{ g`z al flh'lq`{lk bqng {ml uqnk|d{ nb {vn
0
K
olqhlit3
Υ
t
-
}
?
`
)
a
)ο
* 7
1
k
7000/
l
ο
-
}k
`k
*
00/
l
ο
-
}k
ak
*
a
k
`
k
(
U`q`gl{lqt
`
`hk
a
dnh{qni {ml vjk{m nb {ml olqhli)vmjil {ml tinul
ο
dnh{qnit {ml b|ssjhltt nb {ml olqhli([m|t) {ml {n{`i rn{lt d`t{lk {n dlii
A
j
`ql dngu|{lkaz3
R  
-
A
j
* 7
u
∍D
ru
v
-
u
t
-
u
?
`
j
)
a
j
)ο
*
(
-1*[ml rn{jhf uqndltt jt dnhdi|klk az kl{ld{jhf {ml kngj'h`h{ dlii
A
`ddnqkjhf {n3
A
7 `qfg`}
A
j
{
R  
-
A
j
*
w
(
-4*Bjh`iiz) {ml dnnqkjh`{lt nb {ml r`hjtmjhf unjh{ `ql dng'u|{lk `t {ml vljfm{lk `rlq`fl nb `ii {ml d`hkjk`{l r`h'jtmjhf unjh{t vj{m qltuld{ {n {ml
Υ
'Tjfgnjk olqhli dlh'{lqlk `{ {ml dlii
A
3
u
7
u
∍D
ru
v
-
u
*
u
Υ
t
-
u
?
`
)
a
)ο
*
u
∍D
ru
v
-
u
t
-
u
?
`
)
a
)ο
*
)
-;*vmlql
`
)
a
)ο
`ql {ml u`q`gl{lqt nb {ml olqhli dnqql'tunhkjhf {n
A
jh -4*( Hn{l {m`{ `ii {ml d`hkjk`{l unjh{tdnh{qja|{l {n {ml tni|{jnh( Mnvlrlq) {ml jgunq{`hdl nb {ml unjh{t jh {ml kngjh`h{ dlii jt nrlqvmligjhf( [mlt{lut nb {ml gl{mnk `ql t|gg`qjslk jh @ifnqj{mg 0( Jhnqklq {n jhdql`tl {ml qna|t{hltt nb {ml `ifnqj{mg `hk {ntullk j{ |u) ijhl tlfglh{t {m`{ `ql tmnq{lq {m`h ` {mqltm'nik
`hk {mljq nqjlh{`{jnh jt dintl {n mnqjsnh{`i nq rlq'{jd`i vj{mjh
ν
klfqllt `ql uq|hlk( @i{mn|fm {mjt q|ildn|ik al ngj{{lk) j{ v`t klk|dlk {m`{ tl{{jhf {ml r`i|lnb u`q`gl{lq
{n
<,
nb {ml tjsl nb {ml kj`fnh`i nb {mljg`fl `hk
ν
7
°
0<
n
jguqnrlt tjfhjffd`h{iz {ml ulqbnq'g`hdl nb {ml gl{mnk(
@ifnqj{mg 0
R`hjtmjhf unjh{ kl{ld{jnh `ifnqj{mg
jhu|{3
@ dninq jg`fl(
n|{u|{3
[ml dnnqkjh`{lt nb {ml r`hjtmjhf unjh{(
Kl{ld{ {ml lkflt nb {ml jg`fl(
@uuiz {ml KT`G `ifnqj{mg _2W {n kl{ld{ ijhltlfglh{t(
Uq|hl tlfglh{t vmntl ilhf{m jt alinv
`hk {mljq nqjlh{`{jnh jt rlq{jd`i nq mnqjsnh{`ivj{mjh
°
ν
n
(
Dngu|{l {ml dnnqkjh`{lt nb u`jqvjtl jh{lq'tld{jnh unjh{t al{vllh `ii tlfglh{t(
Rn{jhf
D`id|i`{l {ml rn{lt bnq l`dm dlii
A
c
)
c
70
)((()H 
|tjhf -1*(
Bjhk {ml kngjh`h{ dlii |tjhf -4*(
Dngu|{l {ml r`hjtmjhf unjh{ |tjhf -;*(
4 L}ulqjglh{`i Qlt|i{t
[n lr`i|`{l n|q gl{mnk) vl dql`{lk {vn tlp|lhdlt)vj{m 4< `hk 0= bq`glt qltuld{jrliz) vj{m ` bq`gl tjslnb 
415
Ö
1;5
uj}lit l`dm( [ml jg`flt jh l`dm tlp|lhdlvlql d`u{|qlk ulqjnkjd`iiz az ` qnan{ gnrjhf nh ` tul'djffd dn|qtl( [ml tlp|lhdlt qluqltlh{ `h jhknnq dnqqj'knq |hklq r`qjn|t jii|gjh`{jnh dnhkj{jnht( [n g`ol {ml{`to gnql dm`iilhfjhf) jh {ml tldnhk tlp|lhdl) ` ulqtnhv`iojhf {nv`qkt {ml qnan{ `uul`qt jh `ii nb {ml bq`glt([mlh) < jhkjrjk|`it vlql `tolk {n kl{ld{ g`h|`iiz {mlr`hjtmjhf unjh{ jh l`dm jg`fl( [ml fqn|hk {q|{m r`h'jtmjhf unjh{ bnq l`dm jg`fl v`t dnhtjklqlk {n al {mlgl`h unjh{ jhkjd`{lk az {ml rni|h{llqt( [ml t{`hk`qkklrj`{jnh nb {ml r`qjn|t r`hjtmjhf unjh{t uqnrjklk az{ml m|g`ht jt 00 uj}lit vmjdm jt `uuqn}jg`{liz
4
(
<,
nb {ml tmnq{lq jg`fl kjglhtjnh(Jh nqklq {n jhrlt{jf`{l {ml klulhklhdl nb {ml ffh`i ql't|i{ nh {ml r`i|lt nb {ml u`q`gl{lqt
ο
nb {ml
Υ
'Tjfgnjkolqhli `hk {ml fqjk qltni|{jnh {|hlk az
τ
) l}ulqjglh{tvlql ulqbnqglk) l}`gjhjhf {ml gl`h kl{ld{jnh lqqnq`hk {ml l}ld|{jnh -jh G@[I@A* {jgl vj{m qltuld{ {n{mntl u`q`gl{lqt( Hn{l {m`{ `t {ml fqjk qltni|{jnh kl'dql`tlt {ml `ifnqj{mg klg`hkt gnql l}ld|{jnh {jgl al'd`|tl j{ jh{lfq`{lt ` i`qflq h|galq nb olqhlit( [ml ql't|i{t `ql t|gg`qjslk jh [`ail0) vmlql vl m`rl {lt{lk{ml alm`rjnq nb {ml `ifnqj{mg bnq {vn dnhfff|q`{jnht bnq{ml u`q`gl{lq
ο
) h`gliz
ο
7 05
`hk
ο
7 <5
( @t j{g`z al natlqrlk) {ml uqnuntlk gl{mnk l}mjaj{t ` dnh'tjt{lh{ alm`rjnq tjhdl {ml r`qj`{jnh nb {ml kl{ld{jnh lqqnqjt q`{mlq tg`ii dnhdlqhjhf {ml kjbblqlh{ dnhfff|q`{jnht

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->