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Rr412103 Computational Aerodynamics II

Rr412103 Computational Aerodynamics II

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Code No: RR412103
Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS-II(Aeronautical Engineering)Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80Answer any FIVE QuestionsAll Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. Consider a constant - strength source distribution along the x-axis at
x
1
=0.5 and
x
2
=0.95 with the source strength
σ
=0.2 (SI units).Obtain the u and w componentsof the velocity at a point P(1.5,0.5). What if there were a point source of the samestrength at
x
2
? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6]2. Consider a constant strength vortex panel AB forming a part of an airfoil sectionlocated at A(
x
1
=0.5,
y
1
=0.11) ,B(
x
2
= 0.75,
y
2
=0.10). Obtain the induced velocityat P(0.97,0.45), in panel coordinates and Global coordinates.Explain the procedurefor proceeding further in evaluating ow over this airfoil. [6+4+6]3. A supersonic nozzle with a test section Mach number of 1.503 and Test sectionheight of 28 cm is desired to be designed with a single-step of characteristic methods.Make use of gas tables and graph sheets. Start with M=1.0.Show the nozzleboundaries / contour with a neat diagram. Illustrate the procedure adopted.[10+6]4. Consider that in a supersonic ﬂow, the characteristic problem is naturally formu-lated in terms of the Prandtl-Meyer function
ν
Now show that it is convenientto work in
ν
,
θ
coordinates. Hence describe the computations of supersonic ﬂowswith characteristic networks. Explain the characteristics in a ‘general’, simple anduniform ow with illustrations. [4+6+6]5. Deﬁne the term transonic range of ﬂow of a ﬂuid .Describe all aspects of this ﬂowover asymmetrical airfoil at
α
= 0 with sketches and plots. Hence explain theterms Critical Mach number, sub-Critical Mach Number and super-Critical Machnumber. [2+8+6]6. Explain each component of the Navier-Stokes equations and the balance of mo-mentum by writing in the non conservation form .Now put these equations inconservation form. What is the dierence? [10+6]7. Prove that Prandtl BL equations for ﬂow over a ﬂat plate aligned with a steadyuniform free stream of a viscous ﬂuid can be put in the form given as;
u
∂u∂x
+
v
∂u∂y
=
ν
∂
2
u∂y
2
,
∂u∂x
+
∂v∂y
= 0 From above eqs. obtain the Blasius equation .What are theboundary conditions under these transformed co-ordinates. [6+8+2]8. One method of obtaining approximations to the wave equation is due to Euler,given below;
u
n
+1
j
u
nj
t
+
c
u
nj
+1
x
= 0. The above scheme is known to be unconditionallyunstable. It is recommended that you replace the forward space diﬀerencing by a1 of 2

Code No: RR412103
Set No. 1
backward space diﬀerence for
r
0 . where
r
=
c
t
x
Work out your scheme ,present your result . Is this scheme now stable? [8+8]
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
2 of 2

Code No: RR412103
Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS-II(Aeronautical Engineering)Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80Answer any FIVE QuestionsAll Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. Consider a constant strength source panel AB forming a part of an airfoil sectionlocated at A(
x
1
= 0
.
5,
y
1
=0.11) ,B(
x
2
= 0.75,
y
2
=0.10). Obtain the induced velocityat P(0.97,0.35), in panel coordinates and Global coordinates.Explain the procedurefor proceeding further in evaluating ow over this airfoil. 6+4+6]2. Consider a constant - strength Vortex distribution along the x-axis at
x
1
=0.15and
x
2
=0.70 with the vortex strength Γ =0.35 (SI units).Obtain the u and wcomponents of the velocity at a point P(0.5,0.75). What if there were a pointvortex of the same strength at
x
1
? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6]3. A supersonic nozzle with a test section Mach number of 1.571 and Test sectionheight of 27 cm is desired to be designed with a single-step of characteristic methods.Make use of gas tables and graph sheets. Start with M=1.0.Show the nozzleboundaries / contour with a neat diagram. Illustrate the procedure adopted.[10+6]4. The diﬀerential equation for potential function
φ
is expressed in two dimensions is(
a
2
φ
2
x
)
∂
2
φ∂x
2
2
φ
x
φ
y∂
2
φ∂x∂y
+
a
2
φ
2
y
∂
2
φ∂y
2
= 0 , where a and
φ
are speed of soundand velocity potential function respectively. Examine, the condition which makesthis equation hyperbolic .Hence deﬁne characteristics and develop the compatibilityrelations. Make use of sketches and illustrations. [4+6+6]5. Deﬁne the term ‘Transonic Parameter’. As an example consider that an airfoil with12% thickness ratio has critical
p
of 0.795.The pressure peak at about 25% of thechord at M
= 0.70 was measured to be as
p
=0.62.If now an airfoil with the samecamber and thickness distribution having a thickness ratio of 15% is kept in theﬂow with same Mach number, what could be the status of
p
at the same locationof the chord. Support your answer with sketches. What if the earlier airfoil werekept at a higher Mach number .Comment on the ﬂow ﬁeld thus resulting, supportedwith sketches. [8+8]6. Develop the transonic small perturbation equation (1
2
)
∂u∂x
+
∂v∂y
=
2
(
γ
+1)
u∂u∂x
. Explain the process for getting this equation. [12+4]7. Develop the boundary layer equations in two dimensional ﬂow from the Navier?Stokes equations .Describe the assumptions made in the process. How do youestablish the boundary conditions Illustrate with sketches and plots. [10+4+2]8. Take the 1-D wave equation
ϕ
tt
c
2
ϕ
xx
= 0 . Make use of the one step simple EulerExplicit methods .Now explain how will you improve the stability of the scheme byadopting Lax method. Explain the stability of the techniques. [10+6]1 of 2