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Rr411812 x Ray Metallography

Rr411812 x Ray Metallography

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Published by Srinivasa Rao G

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Published by: Srinivasa Rao G on Jan 18, 2008
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Code No: RR411812
Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY(Metallurgy & Material Technology)Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80Answer any FIVE QuestionsAll Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. Discuss the history of X-radiations. Describe the methods for X-ray production.[16]2. Derive simplified expressions for F
2
for the Wurtzite form of ZnS, including therules governing observed reflections. This crystal is hexagonal and contains 2 ZnSper unit cell, located in the following positions: [16]Zn : 0 0 0 1/3 2/3 1/2S : 0 0 3/8 1/3 2/3 7/83. Explain the following:(a) Measurement of X-ray intensity [6](b) Stereographic projection [5](c) Resolving power of a Camera. [5]4. (a) How does Debye-Scherrer diraction pattern look? [4](b) Where is Debye-Scherrer method useful? [6](c) Explain how a powder camera is superior to a Diffractometer with examples.[6]5. (a) Explain the working of Back reection Cameras. [7](b) For a Debye pattern made in a 4.63 Cm diameter Camera with CuK
α
radia-tion. Calculate the separation of the components of the K
α
doublet in degreesand in Centimeters for
θ
= 5
0
,
30
0
,
55
0
and 80
0
. [9]6. Write notes on the following:(a) Crystal quality [6](b) Particle size [5](c) Grain size. [5]7. With an example discuss the structure determination in detail. [16]8. A uniaxial Tensile stress of 100 Ksi is being measured in Iron by reflecting X-raysfrom (211) planes at Ψ = 0 and 45
0
. Take the lattice parameter ‘a’ of the stressfree Iron to be 2.8665
A
0
, E = 30X10
6
Psi and
v
= 0.29.Calculate
d
0
, d
n
and
d
i
to ve signicant gures. [16]
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Code No: RR411812
Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY(Metallurgy & Material Technology)Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80Answer any FIVE QuestionsAll Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. (a) Explain with a neat sketch, the order of reection. [7](b) The atomic radius of Molybdenum atom is 0.1363 nm. Compute the inter-atomic spacing for (111) set of planes in the molybdenum crystal. The crystalstructure of molybdenum is bcc. What is the interplanar spacing for (220) setof planes? [9]2. (a) For BCC Iron, compute (i) the interplanar spacing (ii) the diffracting angle forthe (220) set of planes. The lattice parameter of Iron is 0.2889 nm. Assumethat a monochromatic radiation having a wavelength of 0.1541 nm is used andthe order of reflection is done.(b) (i) Calculate the interplanar spacing for (110) and (221) sets of planes inAluminum (ii) When a monochromatic X-ray beam of X-rays of wavelength0.1542 nm is used, the first order reflection from (113) set of planes occurs at
θ
. What is the value of 
θ
? [8+8]3. Write short notes on the following:(a) Multiplicity factor(b) Lorentz factor. [8+8]4. (a) Describe how powder photograph is taken?(b) Describe how powder pattern of Cubic crystals can be analyzed. [8+8]5. Given a square piece of X-ray film 10 Cm X 10 Cm radiation of 
λ
=0.152 nm andpowdered NaCl with a lattice parameter 0.563 nm, devise a diffraction experimentin such a fashion that the rays from (111) planes produce a circle of diameter 0.1m.[16]6. What is the principle involved in Diffractometre method (The texture of Sheet).With neat sketch explain the working of Diractometre method. [16]7. What is the basic principle involved in crystal structure determination? Explainvarious steps involved in determination of unknown structures. [16]8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation. [16]
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Code No: RR411812
Set No. 3
IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY(Metallurgy & Material Technology)Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80Answer any FIVE QuestionsAll Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. (a) What is the frequency (per second) and energy per quantum (in joules) of x-ray beams of wavelength 0.71A
0
(Mo K
α
) and 1.54A
0
(Cu K
α
)? [7](b) Calculate the velocity and kinetic energy with which the electrons strike thetarget of an X-ray tube operating at a voltage ‘V’. Determine the short-wavelength limit of the continuous spectrum emitted and the maximum energyper quantum of radiation? [9]2. (a) Mention various defects that occur in Crystal. Write in brief on each of them.(b) Nickel shows the diffraction maximum at 2
θ
= 101.502
0
. The wavelength of X-rays is equal to 1.541A
0
. Calculate the lattice parameter of Nickel cell if the above reection corresponds to (310) plane (n =1). [8+8]3. (a) Explain in detail the scattering of X-rays by an atom. [7](b) What is structure factor? Derive an expression for the structure factor. Cal-culate the structure factor for NaCl. [9]4. (a) How do you distinguish between BCC and FCC structures from powder pat-tern.(b) Write a note on Rotating crystal method. [8+8]5. What is the principle involved in X-ray spectrometer? With neat sketch, Explainthe construction and working of X-ray spectrometer. [16]6. Write notes on the following:(a) Crystal quality [6](b) Particle size [5](c) Grain size. [5]7. If the same (hkl) reflection from a given material is examined in a diffractometrewith successively different wavelengths, how does the penetration depth x varywith
λ
? Explain. (Assume the Wavelengths used lie on the same branch of theabsorption curve of the material). [16]8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation. [16]
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