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Thesis Final Turney and Winkeller

Thesis Final Turney and Winkeller

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Changing Corporations:
An Assessment of the Indicators of Environmental Behavior in the ChemicalManufacturing IndustryBy Cristina TurneyandSarah Winkeller 
A practicum submittedin partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree of Master of Science(Natural Resources and Environment)at the University of MichiganDecember 2006 Faculty advisors:
 Professor Andrew J. Hoffman
, Ph.D., Holcim (U.S.) Professor of Sustainable Enterprise
 Professor Thomas P. Lyon,
Ph.D., Dow Chemical Professor of Sustainable Science, Technology and Commerce 
 
Table of ContentsAbstract.................................................................................................................vProblem Definition..............................................................................................1Literature Review................................................................................................2How Our Paper Differs From Prior Scholarship.............................................6Theoretical Framework......................................................................................7Methodology.......................................................................................................13Discussion of Variables.....................................................................................14Social Drivers.....................................................................................................14
Environmental NGOs......................................................................................14Press ................................................................................................................15The Courts .......................................................................................................19The Community ..............................................................................................20Academia ........................................................................................................22
Coercive Drivers................................................................................................24
Domestic Regulation ......................................................................................24Socially Responsible Investing.......................................................................26Buyers..............................................................................................................27
Market Drivers...................................................................................................28
Trade Associations .........................................................................................28
Other Components of the Model......................................................................30
Toxic Release Inventory Data.........................................................................30Industry Lobbying Dollars..............................................................................32Median Income for Family of Four ................................................................33Dummy variables.............................................................................................34
Creating the Model............................................................................................35Interpretation of the Model..............................................................................39Implications of the Model for Actors..............................................................41............................................................................................................................41
Implications for Activists................................................................................41Implications for Corporate Executives............................................................41
Limitations of the Model...................................................................................44
Data limitations................................................................................................44Limitations of using a statistical model..........................................................45
Suggested Improvements to Our Model for Future Researchers................46
Model Methodology Improvements................................................................49
Conclusion..........................................................................................................50Bibliography.......................................................................................................51Appendices..........................................................................................................52Appendix 1: Model with all Variables.............................................................52Appendix 2: Eight Variable Model..................................................................53Fixed-effects (within) regression Number of obs = 400........53Group variable (i): stateid Number of groups = 50..........53R-sq: within = 0.0509 Obs per group: min = 8............53between = 0.0319 avg = 8.0...........................53
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