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CRS - FBI Terrorist Investigation Costs 4-27-11

CRS - FBI Terrorist Investigation Costs 4-27-11

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Published by: Brian Iverson on Aug 26, 2012
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08/26/2012

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CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
The Federal Bureau of Investigation andTerrorism Investigations
Jerome P. Bjelopera
Specialist in Organized Crime and Terrorism
Mark A. Randol
Specialist in Domestic Intelligence and Counter-TerrorismApril 27, 2011
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govR41780
 
The Federal Bureau of Investigation and Terrorism InvestigationsCongressional Research Service
Summary
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI, the Bureau) is the lead federal law enforcement agencycharged with counterterrorism investigations. Since the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks, theFBI has implemented a series of reforms intended to transform itself from a largely reactive lawenforcement agency focused on investigations of criminal activity into a more proactive, agile,flexible, and intelligence-driven agency that can prevent acts of terrorism.This report provides background information on key elements of the FBI terrorism investigativeprocess based on publicly available information. It discusses
 
several enhanced investigative tools, authorities, and capabilities provided to theFBI through post-9/11 legislation, such as the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001; the2008 revision to the
 Attorney General’s Guidelines for Domestic FBI Operations
 (Mukasey Guidelines); and the expansion of Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTF)throughout the country;
 
intelligence reform within the FBI and concerns about the progress of thosereform initiatives;
 
the FBI’s proactive, intelligence-driven posture in its terrorism investigationsusing preventative policing techniques such as the “Al Capone” approach and theuse of agent provocateurs; and
 
the implications for privacy and civil liberties inherent in the use of preventativepolicing techniques to combat terrorism.This report sets forth possible considerations for Congress as it executes its oversight role. Theseissues include the extent to which intelligence has been integrated into FBI operations to supportits counterterrorism mission and the progress the Bureau has made on its intelligence reforminitiatives. In addition, these issues will also be relevant during confirmation hearings for a newdirector. The statutory 10-year term of current FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III expires inSeptember 2011. A new director will be subject to Senate confirmation.
 
The Federal Bureau of Investigation and Terrorism InvestigationsCongressional Research Service
Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................................1
 
Enhanced Investigative Authorities, Tools, and Capabilities.........................................................2
 
USA PATRIOT Act...............................................................................................................3
 
Dismantling “the Wall” Between Intelligence and Criminal Investigations.......................3
 
Roving Wiretaps.............................................................................................................5
 
Expanded Use of Devices that Record the Sources of Incoming and OutgoingCommunications..........................................................................................................5
 
“Sneak and Peek” Search Warrants..................................................................................6
 
Increased Access to Business Records.............................................................................6
 
National Security Letters.................................................................................................6
 
Debate over Civil Liberties Issues...................................................................................8
 
Revised Attorney General Guidelines..................................................................................10
 
Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs)...................................................................................13
 
Intelligence Reform..................................................................................................................14
 
Reform Initiatives: A Work in Progress................................................................................16
 
Terrorism Prevention and Proactive Investigations....................................................................18
 
The Capone Approach.........................................................................................................20
 
Agent Provocateur Cases.....................................................................................................21
 
Balancing Civil Liberties against Terrorism Prevention.............................................................23
 
Considerations for Congress......................................................................................................26
 
Figures
Figure 1. Balancing Civil Liberties Concerns and Security........................................................23
 
Contacts
Author Contact Information......................................................................................................28
 

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