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Building Design

Building Design

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Published by Rizwan Islam

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Published by: Rizwan Islam on Aug 26, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/27/2012

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1
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
 
2
1.1
 
BUILDING:
Any structure for whatever purpose and of any material and every part of them whether forhuman or any other purpose, including all the structural elements like foundations, masonry,roofs, etc., with all the services like water closet, bathroom, staircase, etc., is termed as building.Building does not only refer to house but also implies the masonry the building is providing forsheltering the human beings.Building can be classified based on the occupancy and the type of construction. On the basis of occupancy, the buildings are classified as:1.
 
Residential building2.
 
Educational building3.
 
Institutional building4.
 
Assembly building5.
 
Mercantile building6.
 
Business building7.
 
Industrial building8.
 
Storage building9.
 
Hazardous building
1.1.1.
 
Residential building:
Residential building includes all the building in which the food and lodgingaccommodation is provided for normal residential purposes with lodging room, watercloset and bath are included for small family, private dwellers, dormitories, apartmentshouses(flats), hotel and hostels.
1.1.2.
 
Educational building:
This building includes any building used for schools and colleges.
1.1.3.
 
Institutional building:
These buildings include hospitals and sanatoria, custodial homes such as homes in firmsand orphanages and penal institutions such as jails, prisons, mental hospitals andreformatories.
1.1.4.
 
Assembly building:
These are buildings where group of people congregate or gather for amusements,recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes, theatres, motionpictures houses, assembly halls, auditorium, exhibition halls, museums, places of worships, club rooms, etc., are such buildings.
1.1.5
 
Mercantile building:
 These buildings are used for the transactions of business.
 
3
1.1.6 Business building:
These buildings are also used for the transactions of business.
1.1.7 Industrial building:
 These are the buildings where products or materials of all kinds and properties arefabricated, assembled or processed. Assembly plans laboratories, power plants, drycleaning plants, refineries, etc., are the example of such buildings.
1.1.8
 
Storage building:
These buildings are used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, ware ormerchandise. Cold storage, ware houses, freight depots, transit sheds, store houses, etc.,are the example of such houses.
1.1.9
 
Hazardous building:
These are buildings which are used for storage, handling and manufacturing of highlycombustible or explosive materials.Buildings can be classified, based on the construction as:1.
 
Heat Resistance Building2.
 
Fire Resistance Building3.
 
Sound Proof Building, etc.Before constructing any type of building, each building needs a special type of planning as pertheir functions. Similarly it needs a special and different treatment.
1.2
 
PLANNING OF BUILDING:
Apart from the fact that building must be designed and planned according to thefunctional requirement. The basic principles have been enunciated or broad lined only andmay be applied to the problem on its industrial merits. These natures are not as rigid as of nature. General plan is done with respect to some natural point around its location. It is doneaccording to its natural surrounding condition such as geographical feature of the area suchas hilly, rocky or plains, climate conditions such as warm or cold, direction of sun rays,wind, etc. Before planning any type of structure of the building the area should be favorablefor that structure. More attention should be taken in soil test in order to find the bearingcapacity of the soil as the foundation is heavy for structure of multistoried building. Inaddition, there are certain principles of planning which should be regarded while planningthe building. These are:1.
 
Aspects2.
 
Prospect

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