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Introduction to Philosophy Chapter 3 4

Introduction to Philosophy Chapter 3 4

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Published by: Georgess Murithi Gitonga on Aug 27, 2012
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CHAPTER 3:DIVISIONS/ DISCIPLINES OF PHILOSOPHY WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON LOGICAND ETHICS1. DIVISION OF PHILOSOPHY
The following are the disciplines or branches of philosophy1.Axiology2.Epistemology3.Cosmology4.Ontology5.Metaphysics6.Theodicy7.psychology8.Logic
1
st
diagrammatic presentations of philosophical Disciplines2
nd
diagrammatic Presentations of philosophical Discipline
The diagram below shows the relevance of philosophical inquiry to those engaged in theacquisition of scientific and technical skills in our world today.The diagram shows also the relevance of the philosophical inquiry even in physicalscience, like medicine and engineering and other areas like economics and commerce etc.The diagram with a cluster of disciplines here below advances two convictions of worth inour modern world namely;
Philosophy as love of wisdom and search for the ultimate foundation of all things it isMOTHER subject of all other disciplines on higher level of learning or thought pattern.
Philosophy was relevant from the times of the Greeks as it is now in that it was and stillis a foundation for a better understanding of any coherent discipline of learning.
1
 
Philosophy
Theory of  beingTheory of valueTheory of Valid reasoning
Logic
Theory of knowledge
Metaphysics, OntologyCosmologyTheodicyEpistemologyPsychology
Ethics
 
A. AXIOLOGY
:
i) Etymological definition
 Axiology comes from two
Greek
words; “
axios
” which means “
worthy
” and “
logos
which means “
the study of 
ii) Basic meaning of Axiology 
 Axiology means study of values; the investigation of its nature, criteria, andmetaphysical status.
The analysis of values to determine their meaning, characteristics, origins, types,criteria, and epistemological status.1.
We can briefly elaborate as follows.
a)
Nature of value:
is value a fulfillment of desire, a pleasure, a preference, or simplyan interest?
 b)
Criteria of value:
de gustibus non (est) disputandum or do standards apply?
c)
Status of value:
how are values related to (scientific) facts? What ultimate worth, if any, do human values have?
2. Axiology is sub-divided into two main parts.
a) Ethics
:
i) Ethics
is a general term for what is often described as the "science(study) of morality". Inphilosophy, ethicalbehavior is that which is "good" or "right." The Western tradition of  ethics is sometimes called
moral philosophy
. This is one part of value theory(axiology) – the other part isaesthetics– of the four major branches of philosophy, alongsidemetaphysics,epistemology, andlogic.
ii) The Term Moral:
The English word moral is derived from Latin words Mores and Moralis.Both of them are translated from Greek by the famous Roman Orator Cicero.The Greek word from which the term
Moral
is derived from is
Ethikos
which means
Custom
or 
pertaining
to Character.
2
 
Philosophy
Ethics, Technology, Music, Aesthetics, Logic liberal Arts,(Arithmetic, MathematicsTechnical PhilosophySpeculative philosophyEconomic, Commerce etcPhysicalScienceMetaphysics,Epistemology, Theology,psychology, psychiatryetcNaturalPhilosophyBiologicalScienceEngineering Medicine
 
Ethics is also the study of values in human behavior or the study of moral problems: e.g.,(1) the rightness and wrongness of actions,(2) the kinds of things which are good or desirable, and(3) blameworthy and praiseworthy actions.
b) Aesthetics
comes from Greek word
aisthetikos
, “one who is perceptive of things through hissensations, feelings, and intuitions”
the word aesthesis means “primary, rudimentary sensation”
this is the study of beauty, and of related concepts such as the sublime, the tragic, theugly, the humorous, the drab, the pretty.
The analysis of the values, tastes, attitudes, ands standards involved in our experienceof and judgments about things made by humans or found in nature which we callbeautiful.Therefore, Aesthetics is the study of value in the arts or the inquiry into feelings, judgments,or standards of beauty and related concepts.
B. EPISTEMOLOGY
• Epistemology is the science or theory of knowledge. Episteme- means knowledge, andLogos means theory/science/study/discussion of.• This is the branch or discipline of philosophy which investigates the origin, structure,method and validity of knowledge.• It responds to questions such as:
What are the sources and grounds of knowledge?
What is the scope and extent of knowledge?
When do we have assurance that we know?
What is the difference between knowledge and faith?
What is faith?
ls faith the will to believe?
ls faith an expectation based on experience in human knowledge?
How important is language in knowledge?
What role do symbols, intuition, and empirical science play in knowledge?• The term epistemology seems. to have been used for the first time by J.F. Ferrier in hisinstitute of Metaphysics (1854), when he distinguished two branches of philosophy,epistemology and ontology (which we shall see later).• Epistemology in another sense is an enquiry into the nature and ground of experience,belief and knowledge.• What can we know, and how do we know it? Are the questions central to philosophy? Andknowledge forms the main topic of epistemology along with other cognitive notions likebelief, understanding, reason, judgment, sensation, imagination, supposing, guessing,learning and forgetting.
Types of Knowledge from the Point of view of Epistemology
The types of knowledge often occur in pairs
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