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Published by Krishna Rao K

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Published by: Krishna Rao K on Aug 27, 2012
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Human Resource Management(Book ID: B1132)Set - 1
Q1.Trace out the growth of Human resource Management in India.Answer:
Over many centuries India has absorbed managerial ideas and practices from around the world.Early records of trade, from 4500B.C to 300B.C, not only indicate international economic andpolitical links, but also the ideas of social and public
administration. The world’
s first
management book, titled “Arlhãshastra”
, written three millennium before Christ, codified manyaspects of human resource practice in Ancient India. This treatise presented notions of thefinancial administration of the state, guiding principles for trade and commerce, as well as themanagement of people. These ideas were to be embedded in organizational thinking for centuries(Rangarajan 1992, Sihag 2004).Increasing trade, that included engagement with the Romans, ledto widespread and systematic governance methods by 250 A.D. during the next 300 years, thefirst Indian empire, the Gupta Dynasty, encouraged the establishment of rules and regulations formanagerial systems, and later from about 1000 A.D. Islam influenced many areas of trade andcommerce. A further powerful effect on the managerial history of India was to be provided bythe British system of corporate organization for 200 years. Clearly, the socio cultural roots of Indian heritage are diverse and have been drawn from multiple sources including ideas broughtfrom other parts of the old world. Interestingly, these ideas were essentially secular even whenthey originated from religious bases.In the contemporary context, the Indian management mindscape continues to be influenced bythe residual traces of ancient wisdom as it faces the complexities of global realities. One streamof holistic wisdom, identified as the Vedantic philosophy, pervades managerial behavior at alllevels of work organizations. This philosophical tradition has its sacred texts from 2000B.C. andit holds that human nature has a capacity for self transformation and attaining spiritual highground while facing realities of day to day challenges (Lannoy 1971). Such cultural basedtradition and heritage can have a substantial impact on current managerial mindset in terms of family bonding and mutuality of obligations. The caste system, which was recorded in thewritings of the Greek Ambassador Megasthenes in the third century B.C., is another significantfeature of Indian social heritage that for centuries had impacted organizational architecture andmanagerial practices, and has now become the focus of critical attention in the social, political andlegal agenda of the nation.
Q2. What are the factors that impact recruitment in organization?Answer:
All organizations, whether large or small, do engage in recruiting activity, though not to the sameintensity. Few factors that impact the nature of recruitment:1. The size of the organization- the smaller the organization the more the need to carefullyscrutinize the candidate for a job and the fitment to the organizational culture. The risk in case of  job-candidate mismatch can prove equally expensive for a smaller organization as compared tothe larger one.2. The employment conditions in the country where the organization is located- critically impactsthe recruiting strategy. The methods for recruiting, the selection tools that are most suited and thelegal framework that bear on the employer are some aspects that need to be considered.3. The
affects of past recruiting efforts which show the organization’s ability to locate and keep
good performing people- constantly reviewing the effectiveness of the recruiting methods andthe selection tools used, evaluating the success at-work of the new recruits are some methodsused by organizations to ensure that quality hiring practices are in-place.4. Working conditions and salary and benefit packages offered by the organization- this mayinfluence turnover and necessitate recruiting;(v) The rate of growth of organization-the phase in the life-cycle of the firm is a measure of therecruiting effort.5. The level of seasonality of operations and future expansion and production programmers
 ensuring that the recruitment numbers come from a well-planned Human Resource Plan iscritical to ensure that there is no over-hiring or under- hiring of the required talent to achieve theorganizational objectives.6. Cultural, economic and legal factors
these too affect the recruiting and selection methodsthat are used.
Q3.State the major career development activities found in organizations.Answer:
Today, HR managers participate in developing business strategies and ensure that human
resource dimensions are considered. For instance, the HR manager for manufacturing has HRresponsibilities for 600 employees. In that role she contributes to workflow, production,scheduling, and other manufacturing decisions. It also means that she is more accessible to andhas more credibility with manufacturing workers, most of whom are hourly workers. Making thetransition in HR management required going from seven to three levels of management, greatlyexpanding the use of cross-functional work teams, and significantly increasing training. To easeemployee and managerial anxieties about the changes, GE Fanuc promised that no employeeswould lose their jobs. Managers and supervisors affected by the elimination of levels wereoffered promotions, transfers to other jobs in GE Fanuc, or early retirement buyouts.Additionally, employees were promised profit sharing, which has resulted in up to three weeksadditional pay in profit sharing bonuses in some years. The test of the change is in the results.GE
revenue is up almost 18%. Over 40 work teams meet regularly to discuss work goals, track their performance against established measures, and discuss problems and issues.Employee turnover is also extremely low in most areas. Transitions in HR management are alsopaying off in the Bank of Montreal, based in Montreal, Quebec. Emphasizing human resourceshas involved 35,000 employees in organizational success. This recognition meant focusinggreater attention on the talents of diverse employees working at the bank. Specific efforts weremade to expand opportunities for women employees, who composed about three-fourths of the
workers. As a result, several years later about one-fourth of all managers and executivesare women. Similar attention also was focused on other diverse groups of employees. So that allemployees were given opportunities to grow and learn, the Bank of 
Instituteof Learning was established at a cost exceeding $50 million. The goal of providing five days of training and education to every employee each year has been met for several years. To focus onperformance, each department and every employee have performance targets and measure sonsuch factors as customer service, return on equity, and profitability. Yearly, the scores from allmeasures are computed as indices, and then compiled into one figure to measure overall bank performance. Executives believe that their emphasis on HR activities has contributedsignificantly to the Bank of 
achieving period profits for seven years in a row. Insummary, it is evident that the transition of HR management at GEFanuc and at Bank of Montreal has enhanced organizational competitiveness and success.
Q4.What are the major problems faced in benefits management?Answer:
One of the most vexing problems faced by modern human resource management is how to assure

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