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P. 1
Practice Questions

Practice Questions

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Practice QuestionsSection 3Time
 – 
35 minutes 25 Questions1. Concerned about the ongoing downturn in the economy, thehead of a large charitable organization recently beganreviewing receipts to see how the economic problems haveaffected the donations that the organization has received.Much to his surprise, the amount received in donations has notchanged at all
 — 
the charitable organization has continued toreceive the same amount as before the economic slump. Thehead of the organization knows that the regular donors aretypically faithful with sending in their donations, but he is stillsurprised to find that the organization is not having anytrouble meeting its donation goals.Which of the following best explains the anomaly between theexpected decline in charitable donations and the actualreceipt?(A) The wealthier members of society are generallythe largest source of charitable donations, and theywill always have extra money for non
profitorganizations.(B) The charity made the decision to lower itsexpectations for donations, so the amount receivedwas accurate, based on the adjustment for anticipateddonations.(C) The charity is now receiving federal money, sothe losses that it sustains during the economicdownturn are covered under government subsidies.(D) People generally feel more obligated to give in atime of economic loss, even if they do not have asmuch disposable income as they do in a healthyeconomy.(E) Charitable donations function as tax deductions,so those who usually give to the charitableorganization have strong incentive to give duringeconomic weakness.2. Geophysicist: Although scientists do not entirely agree onthe causes of geomagnetic reversal, they do agree that theprocess has the potential for significant changes on the earth.A geomagnetic reversal occurs when the magnetic field of theearth adjusts in its orientation, so that the magnetic northbecomes the magnetic south, and vice versa. What is more,studies indicate that the magnetic field is gradually losing itsstrength and that we might expect to see a reversal within thenext few millennia. While this might not seem significant, thereversal of the magnetic fields would occur over a long periodof time, leaving the earth potentially unprotected from the
sun‘s radiation.
 Reviewing the information in the passage above carefully,
which of the following represents the geophysicist‘s primary
argument?(A) While there will be a few effects of ageomagnetic reversal, the negative effects will belimited.(B) Geomagnetic reversals have occurred within theperiod of human existence on the earth, and sincemankind has survived, there is no reason to fearhuman eradication from geomagnetic reversal.(C) Scientists do not fully understand the causes orresults of geomagnetic reversal, but there is evidencethat the process should not be ignored.(D) Given the severe possibilities that may arise froma geomagnetic reversal, governments should beginfunding studies of this process.(E) The current placement of magnetic poles on theearth has little effect on the natural functions of theearth.3. While black or green tea tends to be the leaf of choiceamong connoisseurs, recent studies have indicated there aresignificant benefits to drinking white tea. White tea isconsiderably more delicate and rarer than black or green teaand has fewer producers. Because it is unprocessed andunfermented, white tea has very high levels of catechins,which are known for having antibiotic qualities and delayingaging. Additionally, white tea has elevated levels of theobromine, a substance that can improve circulation. Toproduce white tea, basic tea leaves are picked when they arevery young, so white tea contains considerably less fluoridethan black or green tea and much higher levels of theanine,which is known for its relaxing qualities. Research indicatesthat white tea has an amount of caffeine comparable to that of either black or green tea.The passage implies all of the following EXCEPT:(A) Because it is more delicate and rarer than black or green tea, white teamay be more costly than the other forms of tea.(B) White tea is usually derived from the sameleaves as black or green tea, but it is picked when it isyounger, and the leaves are not processed orfermented.(C) Research suggests that white tea has extrabenefits that black or green tea do not always have.(D) Fluoride is a necessary ingredient for tea, so mostwhite tea producers add fluoride to the tea that theysell.(E) The increased levels of theanine in white tea havethe potential to counter the effects of caffeine morethan in black or green tea.4. Angelica: The cultural development of the RoaringTwenties is a direct result of the social breakdown thatoccurred during World War I. The soldiers and other youngpeople witnessed the dishonesty of authority figures regardingthe war, its causes, and the nature of patriotism, and theRoaring Twenties became a backlash against authority, withthe defiance of traditions and moral expectations. This becamethe tone of the Modern Age, so the Roaring Twenties may becalled the start of modernism.Luca: While the 1920s generation embraced the mood of modernism more thoroughly than previous generations, it ismore correct to note that the Modern Age had already begunin the mid
nineteenth century, as philosophers and politicalthinkers started questioning traditional religious authoritiesand raising questions about the nature of morality.
Luca responds to Angelica‘s comment by doing which of the
following?
 
 (A) Acknowledging a part of the argument butsuggesting the need forrevision.(B) Criticizing the substance of the argument andcalling the conclusioninto question.(C) Demonstrating the logical fallacy embedded inthe argument.(D) Questioning the possibility of arriving at any realconclusionregarding the topic.(E) Offering a point
by
point disagreement andproviding alternate views.5. The island of Sark is the smallest of four islands in thesouthwestern area of the English Channel. Sark is a part of theBritish Crown. Until 2008, it was considered the lastremaining feudal state in Europe, its government under theSeigneur and functioning as a fiefdom granted by the Britishmonarch. Sark is a tiny island, with only two square miles of land and a population of only 600 people, most of whom arepast middle age. It has no airport, and airplanes are notallowed to fly over; Sark may be reached by ferry alone. Thefragile landscape and climate of the island are heavilyinfluenced by its location in the English Channel, and itsresidents are committed to maintaining a natural quality with a
focus on sustainable activities. Sark has a ―horses
only‖
policy, and no cars or other motor vehicles are allowed there.Based on the statements made in the passage, which of the
following offers the best explanation for the ―horses
only‖
policy on Sark?(A) As the island is only two square miles, most of the residents can walk or ride easily enough to get from one location toanother.(B) Most of the residents on Sark are accustomed tothe laws forbiddingmotor vehicles and have no interest in changing themat this time.(C) Sark is composed of several very small andself 
contained villages,and there is little need for the residents to go fromone place to theother frequently.(D) Due to the delicate environment of the island, theresidents of Sark areconcerned about the pollution that motor vehiclescould bring with them.(E) Because the island of Sark was a feudal state forso long, many of the laws are arbitrary and have norelevance to contemporary society.6. The name Japan is generally considered to be an exonym, ora name that is given to a country from outsiders but is not thename with which inhabitants identify their country. TheJapanese call their nation Nippon or Nihon, both of which
mean ―the sun‘s origin.‘ The name ―Japan‖ is believed to have
come from the Portuguese word Giapan, which is a derivationof the Malay word Jepang and is thought to have originatedwith the Mandarin word Cipangu. The Portuguese establishedongoing trade with the Far East during the sixteenth century,and the name that they adopted for the country now known inEnglish as Japan has stuck. This particular usage exists in atleast nine other languages.Which of the following may be inferred from statements madein the passage above?(A) As the name Japan is an incorrect usage, thename should be adjustedto reflect the way that the Japanese people refer totheir country.(B) The name Japan came into existence because of trading activity withother peoples in the Far East before there was tradewith theJapanese.(C) It would be an insult for non
Japanese to refer toJapan as Nippon orNihon, because both names are sacred to the Japanesepeople andtheir language.(D) The name Japan is Mandarin in origin and carriesthe same meaningas Nippon or Nihon.(E) Exonyms are rare, and the name Japan is one of very few examples.7. Farmer in Norway: Two decades ago, it became clear thatthe greylag goose population was on the decline due to theencroachment of cities and the destruction of their nativenesting sites. The government provided official protection forthe diminishing greylag goose, but with the result that farmersare now inundated with geese on their farms. These geesegraze on crops and are causing an increasing number of problems for farmers who are unable to do anything to driveoff or destroy the invading geese. As the greylag goosepopulation has clearly increased, the government should nowremove the official protection status to allow farmers toprotect their crops.
The reasoning in the farmer‘s argument is subject to which of 
the following flaws?(A) He fails to offer an alternative solution to theproblems that farmersare facing with the greylag geese.(B) He relies on questionable data to present hisargument about the needto lift the protection status.(C) He fails to note that lifting the protection status of the greylag goosecould send it back into endangerment, and hesuggests a solution thatdoes not fully consider both sides of the issue.(D) He declines to compare the situation with thegreylag goose tocomparable situations in which an endangeredspecies hasexperienced a population explosion.(E) He sides too openly with his fellow farmers whoare struggling withexcessive geese on their farms and fails todemonstrate objectivity.
 
 8. When making a logical argument, it is essential todistinguish between theory and fact and to recognize the placeof each. Theory suggests an idea or a hypothesis that might betrue, but it requires the support of fact in order to verify it.Fact is the evidence or the proof that makes a theory valid;without fact, that theory is merely a concept for considerationand an idea that has potential. Theory is not alwaysunacceptable in a logical argument, but that theory must bebased on comparable facts from similar situations orexamples. A logical argument founded on a theory usuallyends in speculation, while a logical argument that builds on atheory with comparable facts can prove to be highly effective.Which of the following does the passage above imply?(A) Fact is always more important and more valuablethan theory whenmaking a logical argument.(B) While theory has a place in a logical argument, itis generally better toavoid it altogether.(C) Theory is basically equivalent to speculation and,as such, canundermine the strength of a logical argument.(D) Theory should never be confused with fact, at therisk of making alogical argument that is entirely false.(E) Theory has a place in a logical argument, but onlyif fact can be provenbased on an analogous scenario.9. A large corporation is currently in the middle of turnover, asmany of the older employees are retiring around the sametime. With a weak economic situation, the corporation has toconsider its hiring options carefully. Most of the retiringemployees have been with the company for many years andhave acquired knowledge and skills that would require thecorporation to hire additional employees to take over theirpositions. The CEO of the corporation has decided not toreplace all of the retiring employees, however. Instead, thecorporation will be hiring fewer employees. The corporationdoes not expect to see a reduction in the work output, but itdoes plan to see a reduction in salaries.Which of the following best explains the decision by thecorporation to hire fewer employees?(A) The corporation is relocating many of the jobs toan overseas branch, thus reducing the jobs required atits primary U.S. location.(B) Many of the retiring employees will continue towork part
time to fill in the gaps with the reducednumber of jobs.(C) The corporation is working with a headhuntingfirm in order to bring on versatile workers who willaccept diverse employment requirements for a lowersalary.(D) The corporation has reviewed the open positionsin the company, and the CEO feels as though manyof those positions are outdated and can be eliminated.(E) The corporation is reducing its pay for employeesand is altering theretirement plan available to retiring employees inorder to save money.10. Editorial from Local Art Instructor: Studies indicatethat art lessons can be of particular benefit to elementaryschool children, because art allows children to explore creativeskills in ways that other programs do not. Art allows childrento pursue creativity without fear of restriction, but moreimportantly, art encourages the development of different areasof the brain, thus providing the student with a well
roundedmind. This development will provide the further benefit of improving the performance of students in other subjects.Elementary schools in Japan have recently begun adding adaily art program for students, and the student test scores inmath and science have improved considerably.Which of the following undermines the statements that the artinstructor makes in favor of the local elementary schoolsadopting art programs?(A) The local elementary schools focus more onmath and scienceprograms, because they receive exclusivegovernment funding forgood test scores.(B) The art instructor is closely connected to anon
profit organizationthat focuses on bringing art programs into the schoolsystem.(C) Many other elementary school subjectsallow for the development of creative skills.(D) Elementary schools in Japan have recentlyadopted a new math andscience curriculum, and the students in all of theschools haveresponded well to it.(E) All of the local elementary schools have hadextensive art programs inthe past, but the students did not enjoy the programs,so they were dropped.Questions 11 and 12 refer to the following passage: It isbelieved that the earliest precursor to the modern-day cameraderives from the camera obscura, usually credited to the Arabscientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham in the eleventhcentury. Working in an early version of a dark room, Ibn al-Haitham studied the movement of light and discovered that hecould reproduce images by reflecting light through pinholes.Prior to Ibn al-Haitham, though, the Chinese philosopher Mozihad already begun developing a variety of a pinhole camera inthe fourth century BC. Later in that same century, bothAristotle and Euclid remarked on the placement of light whenprojected through pinholes. What is more, the Arab
mathematician Abu Yusuf Ya‗qub Ibn Ishaq al
-Kindi becamethe first to project images with an early type of cameraobscura in the ninth century. As a result, although Ibn al-Haitham is often credited with the creation of the cameraobscura, he is also recorded as having said that he did notinvent it.11. The claims made in the passage above, if true,support which of the following statements?

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