Figure 2: Unpaid family workers, Cambodia, Philippines,and Kazakhstan, Women and Men, 2008
Notes: Unpaid contributing family worker (%), Cambodia
7 years +, Philippines and Kazakhstan
15 years plus, 2008.Source: compiled from ILO, Key Indicators of the Labour Market.
There is some evidence that decent work conditions are deteriorating and that women areparticularly vulnerable. For example, among women, there has been: an increase in thepercentage of low wage workers (Philippines); increase in the gender wage gap (Cambodia);and increased employment vulnerability due to fluctuations in global demand for labor intensive products and services (Cambodia and the Philippines).
Good practices to expand women’s employment
Examples of good practices to expand women’s employment and decent work exist in all
three countries. First, at the macroeconomic level, as part of national fiscal policy,Kazakhstan has undertaken some reinvestment in infrastructure and services to increaseaccess to potable water and electricity; such infrastructure and services may reduce
women’s unpaid time burden. In Cambodia, the link between trade policy and working
conditions in the garment sector improves access to employment and decent work for women. The Philippines has a strong legal framework, the Magna Carta, and well-developednational machinery for gender mainstreaming to assist with gender-responsive planning.Second, policies to promote employment opportunities for women are being planned or implemented in each country. Cambodia plans to expand technical and vocationaleducation and training which recognizes the benefits of including training for women in non-
traditional areas; such training should enhance women’s access to employment and
assist inreducing occupational and industrial segregation. Legal provisions exist in Kazakhstan thatoffer some job security to women who take unpaid leave for child care reasons.Third, in terms of social protection, the Philippines has initiated a cash transfer program,funded by among others, the Asian Development Bank, and a pilot project to expand socialinsurance to informal workers.
Finally, there are several examples of projects designed to support women’s voice, rights
and representation. In Cambodia, for example, the Urban Sector Group has engaged withstreet vendors and provided training and capacity building in advocacy and negotiating. The