All living things have such fertility that their population size could (3)increaserapidly forever.2.
We see that the size of populations does not increase to this extent. Mostly,numbers remain (4)about the same.3.
The food and other resources are limited. Therefore, there is (5)competition forfood and resources.4.
No two individuals are alike. Therefore, they will not have the same chances to(6)live and reproduce.5.
Much of this variation can be inherited. The parents pass such traits to the(7)children through their genes.6.
The next generation can only come from those that survive and reproduce
. Aftermany generations of this, the population will have more helpful geneticdifferences, and fewer harmful ones.
Natural selection is really a process of
. The elimination is being caused by the relative fit between theindividuals, and the environment they live in.
Ok, so that clarifies how it happens. Do you think you could give us some examplesnow?
There are now quite a number of examples of natural selection in natural populations.
Resistance to antibiotics is increased by the survival of individuals which are immune tothe effects of the antibiotic. Their offspring inherit the resistance, creating a newpopulation of resistant bacteria.A well-known example of natural selection in action is the development of antibioticresistance in microorganisms. (9) Since the discovery of penicillin in 1928 by AlexanderFleming, antibiotics have been used to fight bacterial diseases. Natural populations of bacteria contain, among their vast numbers of individual members, considerablevariation in their genetic material, as the result of mutations. When exposed toantibiotics, most bacteria die quickly, but some may have mutations that make themslightly less susceptible. If the exposure to antibiotics is short, these individuals willsurvive the treatment. This selective elimination of maladapted individuals from apopulation is natural selection.Given enough time, and repeated exposure to the antibiotic, a population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria will emerge. This leads to what is known as an evolutionary arms race,or co-evolution, in which bacteria continue to develop strains that are less susceptibleto antibiotics, while medical researchers continue to develop new antibiotics that can