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Implementation and Evaluation of intervention programmes in children

Implementation and Evaluation of intervention programmes in children

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An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Caroline Gallagher. Originally submitted for Nutrition Research Methodology at University of Ulster, with lecturer Rob Welch in the category of Life Sciences
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Caroline Gallagher. Originally submitted for Nutrition Research Methodology at University of Ulster, with lecturer Rob Welch in the category of Life Sciences

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Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 29, 2012
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10/27/2013

 
Literature ReviewTitle: Implementation and Evaluation of intervention programmes in childrenAuthors Name: Caroline Gallagher & Dr Alison Gallagher Module: Nutrition Research Methodology NUT506C1ACourse: BSc Hons Human Nutrition (DIS)Address: School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine BT521SA1.Introduction2.Causes of obesity (genetics and environmental)2.1Health impacts of obesity3.Obesity in socio-economic status3.1 Obesity in children4. Interventions4.1 Sport for LIFE5. Conclusion6. References 1
 
AbstractPrevalence of obesity has increased globally in adults and children over the past few years.The negative impact of obesity at an individual level is high. Obesity causes excess stress onthe body therefore contributes to a range of health problems. This puts increased pressures onthe National Health Service. Therefore health authorities and governments have a greatresponsibility to combat the rise in overweight and obesity and thus help to alleviate thediseases caused or exacerbated by obesity. It is suggested that trends in obesity may beinfluenced by many factors. One of which is the level of socio-economic status. Individualsin lower social class may have higher body mass index and more susceptible to beingoverweight. Some studies demonstrate that prevalence rates are stabilizing however this isnot observed in children form lower socio economic status. It is recognised worldwide thatintervention programmes in children is one of the best approaches to target overweight andreduce the rates of obesity. As a result many intervention programmes have beenimplemented however the evaluation of these programmes is equally as important as theimplementation. There is great difficulty in achieving sustainability and overall effectivenessin programmes.(Word Count 195)Key Words: Children, Obesity, Overweight, intervention, evaluationRunning Head: Children, Overweight and Interventions.2
 
1. IntroductionOver the past few decades there has been an increase in obesity prevalence and is observed both in children and adults (Lobstein
et al 
2004; Chinn
et al 
2005; Crowley
et al 
2007; Han
et al.
2010)
.
 This trend is demonstrated globally but prevalence continues toincrease to a higher extent in developing countries. (Lobstein & Wang2006; Grunseit
et al
.2010).
 
Obesity in adults is indicated by values instigated by theWorld Health Organisation (WHO) 1997 using cut off points for measures of body massindex (BMI). International obesity reference standards were developed by Cole et al, 2000 todetermine whether children are overweight or obese using their BMI.Global population studies from various countries including Australia, Canada andIreland have indicated that over a quarter of those measured in the study who were aged between 5-18 years, were either overweight or obese (International Obesity Taskforce 2010).In Ireland, a two to four fold increase was shown in obesity rates in 8-12 year old childrenusing the BMI cut offs by Cole et al 2000 (Burke
et al.
2007).Prevalence of overweight and obesity from 1990-2000 in Northern Ireland increasedfrom 16.0% to 19.5% for boys and 15.9% to 26.9% for girls (Lobstein & Wang, 2010). Thisresult is a 10% rise in girls.Obesity puts increased pressures not only at individual level, but also at populationlevel which puts increased demands on the National Health Service. Consequently the rise inoverweight and obesity has lead to the initiation and implementation of various methods totackle this trend. (Brug
et al.
2010).2.Causes of Obesity3

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