introspectively unidentified (or inaccurately identified) traces of pastexperience that mediate favourable or unfavourable feeling, thought, or action towardssocial judgem
Their power lies in the fact that they are assumed to operate in anunconscious realm, reflecting an automatic mental process (Damburn & Guimond, 2004);these mental processes are sometimes unknown to the holder but manifest as judgementsor behaviour toward a particular social group (Greenwald, Nosek, & Banaji, 2005). Due tothe unconscious nature of these attitudes the process of measurement proves problematic.Measures such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz,1998), the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP; Barnes-Holmes et al., 2006) andfacial electromyography (facial EMG; Vanman et al., 1997) have been developed which havebeen shown to reliably and validly assess implicit cognition. Exploring the relationship
between people’s implicit and explicit attitudes
on phenomena has allowed researchers amethod of taping into a truer reality of attitudes (Vanman, Saltz, Nathan, & Warren 2004;Vanman et al., 1997; Ensari et al., 2004).This essay will describe and critically assess the utility of the IRAP and Facial EMG astwo measures of implicit cognition, with particular attention on the validity and reliability asmeans of quantifying implicit attitudes.
Consistent with Darwin’s (1872;
as cited in Dimberg, Thunberg, & Elmehed, 2000)proposition that facial expressions of emotions have a biological basis, it has been proposed
that they are controlled by particular ‘facial affect programs’.
Facial EMG is conducted byplacing two pairs of positive and negative electrode conductors on the face, followed by