Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
‘The Laïcité that is meant to be reinforced by the 2004 law, which bans the wearing of ostentatious signs of religious affiliation within state schools, has always been marked by a tension between individual rights and statist unity’ (Joppke 2009: 34) Critically discuss.

‘The Laïcité that is meant to be reinforced by the 2004 law, which bans the wearing of ostentatious signs of religious affiliation within state schools, has always been marked by a tension between individual rights and statist unity’ (Joppke 2009: 34) Critically discuss.

Ratings: (0)|Views: 218|Likes:
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Aisling McGettigan. Originally submitted for Contemporary French Society and Politics at University College Cork, with lecturer Professor Patrick Crowley in the category of Social Studies
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Aisling McGettigan. Originally submitted for Contemporary French Society and Politics at University College Cork, with lecturer Professor Patrick Crowley in the category of Social Studies

More info:

Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 29, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See More
See less

10/27/2013

 
‘The
Laïcité
thatismeanttobereinforcedbythe2004law,whichbansthewearingofostentatioussignsofreligiousaffiliationwithinstateschools,hasalwaysbeenmarkedbyatensionbetweenindividualrightsandstatistunity’(Joppke2009:34)Criticallydiscuss.
 
Indeterminingthetensionsbetweentheindividualrightsandthestatistunityderivedfromthe2004lawonthewearingofostentatiousreligioussymbolsinstateschools
1
itisimportanttofirstexaminethemeaningofthetermlaïcitéandhowithasdevelopedovertime.FollowingthetransformationoftheinterpretationofthetermandofFrenchsocietyIwillexaminetheeventsthatleduptoandsurroundedthislawalongwiththeeventsthatresultedfromitsimpact.The
FoulardAffair
and
TheStasiReportwilldemonstratetheshapelaïcitéformed.Issuessuchasthe‘perilofIslam’
2
,integration,genderequalityandasearchforidentitywillbeexplored.Isittheschoolandnotthestudentthatshouldbeforcedtofollowtheprincipleoflaïcité,‘neutrality’forproviders,‘liberty’forusers
3
?WerethemembersoftheStasicommitteesoqualifiedinsemioticsthattheycouldobjectivelyinterpretthemeaningoftheveiltoallMuslimwomen?Or,asPierreBourdieuunequivocallypronouncedis‘thepatentquestionofwhether‘Islamic’headscarvesshouldbeacceptedinschoolsmask(ing)thelatentquestionofwhetherimmigrantsofNorthAfricanoriginshouldbeacceptedinFrance’
4
?ThesearesomeofthequestionsIwillpursueandaimtoresolvewhileexaminingtheirimpactontheincompatibilityofindividualrightsandstatistunity.
Themeaningof
laïcité 
PierreKahn
5
lookedattheoriginoftheword‘laïc’andfoundthatancientChristianvocabularydefineditasthebeliefsofanybodynotbelongingtoaChristianorder
6
.HenriPena-Ruiz
7
privilegesetymologyandderivesthemeaningfromtheGreekterm‘loas’pertainingtounityofthepopulation.Hecontinuesbystatingthattheunityderivedisoneoftheprinciplesoflibertyandequalitysimultaneously
8
.Theamalgamationofthesetwointerpretations,beliefoutsideofareligiousorderandunityofpopulation,becamethelaïcitéthatisinferredbythelawof1905
9
.Theideologyoflaïcitédevelopedfromthisandisimplicitlyimpliedbythelawratherthenexplicitlystated.Itisfromthislawthattwobranchesofinterpretationoflaïcitédeveloped.Thesebecamegenerallyrecognisedasthe‘combative’and‘pluralist’distinctionsoflaïcité
10
,thefirstbeinginlinewithstatistunityandthesecondwiththereligiousrightsoftheindividual.Joppkepreciselyexplainedthisas‘atensionbetweenbeinga
1
n°2004-228,insérantl’articleL141-5-1dansleCodedel’éducation.
2
PierreKahn
IdéesReçuesLaLaïcité 
LeCavalierBleuParis2005109.
3
ChristianJoppke‘Veil,MirrorofIdentity’PolityPress200943.
4
JonathanLaurenceJustinVaïsse,
IntegratingIslamPoliticalandReligiousChallengesinContemporaryFrance
WashingtonDCBrookingsInstitutionPress2006163.
5
Kahn(n2).
6
ibid9.
7
HenriPena-Ruiz
Qu'est-cequelalaïcité? 
GallimardcollectionFolioactuel,2003.
8
ibid21.
9
Loidu9décembre1905concernantlaséparationdesEglisesetdel’Etat.
10
 
JoelSFetzerJChristopherSoper
MuslimsandthestateinBritainFranceandGermany 
 
CambridgeUniversityPress200574
 
.
 
 
principleofrightsandreligiousliberties
and
beingaprincipleofnationalunityandintegration
11
.
Theinfamous
FoulardAffair
andallthatfollowed
Criel,France,1989markedthebeginningof
‘l’affairdufoulard’ 
orthe‘headscarfaffair’aswenowknowit.ThreegirlsofNorthAfricanoriginarrivedattheir
collège
(secondaryschool)andwereinstructedtoremovetheveilsthatcoveredtheirhair,uponrefusaltheywereexpelled.ThethenPrimeMinisterLionelJospinfavouredtheindividualrightsapproachstating‘Theschoolmustnotexcludebecauseitspurposeisinclusion
(elleestfaitepouraccueillir)
’
12
.Theliberalor‘pluralist’interpretationoflaïcitéfocusesontheindividualrightsanditwasthisversionthattheConseild’Etatsoughttoenforce.Whilethemediachosetofocusontheexpulsionsthecourtsfocusedontheirrevocation.Between1992and1999ofthe49casesofexpulsionbroughttotheConseild’Etat,41werereinstatedintheirschools
13
.For15yearstheConseild’Etatrespectedtheliberalinterpretationoflaïcitéandhencetherightsoftheindividual.However,asurgeinbelieversofthecombativeapproachtolaïcitéwasgoingtobringaboutamovetowardsstatistunity.WhileFrance’shighestadministrativecourtLeConseild’Etat,theequivalentofourSupremeCourt,hadbeeninterpretinglaïcitétobeaprincipleofrights,France’spoliticiansvieweditasaprincipleofunity.Onthe19
th
ofApril2003thethenMinisterfortheInterior,NicolasSarkozypresentedhimselfattheannualconventionoftheUnionofFrenchIslamicOrganisations(UOIF)andproclaimedthatunder‘republican’lawitwasnecessarytounveilforIDcards.Hewasmetbyboosandhissestotheextentthattherestofhisspeechwasinaudible.Within3monthsofthisevent,onthe3
rd
ofJuly,thecommissionforthereflectionoftheissueoflaïcité,presideduponbyBernardStasi,hadbeenestablished.Thetensionbetweenindividualrightsandstatistunitywasabouttointensify.
TheStasiReport
Theopeninglinesofthereportstatethat‘laïcitépermitsthegradualestablishmentofalldogmatismsbalancedcorrespondingwiththeneedsofFrenchsociety’.Thereportcontinuesbyoutliningthetwoopposingmodelsoflaïcité,the‘combativeandtheonethatadvocatesthemutualseparationoftheStateandreligionsintherespectof
all
spiritualopinions.Thismodelisthemost
liberal
and
tolerant
bornenotablybyJulesFerry.Thisisthelaïcitéestablishedinourinstitutionswiththegreatlawof1905’(emphasisadded)
14
.PierreKahncreditsJulesFerrywiththeinventionofthecompulsoryandfree
‘écolelaïque’ 
15
.
11
Joppke(n3)33
12
FrançoiseGaspardFarhadKhosrokhavar
LefoulardetlaRépublique
LaDécouverte199522.
13
Loidu9décembre1905concernantlaséparationdesEglisesetdel’EtatHautConseilal’integration2000:56
14
LeRapportdelaCommissionStasiSurlaLaïcité1.1translationmine.
15
Kahn(n2)15.


You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->