The Impact of the TRIPS Agreement on WTO Member States
subsidies and countervailing duties, government procurement, dumping and anti-dumping andvaluation techniques for the assessment of customs duties on merchandise.
The eighth and finalround was the Uruguay Round, which saw the birth of the World Trade Organisation.
1.3The Uruguay Round
The Uruguay Round spanned from 1986-93. This final round was deemed to be the mostambitious round to date. Spurred on by the United States, intellectual property (IP) was added to theagenda for this negotiating round; a first for GATT. The Uruguay Round contained so many newand progressive areas of interest that it had many ups and downs throughout various MinisterialConferences, however, eventually, seven years after the commencement of negotiations, theAgreement Establishing the World Trade Organisation (WTO Agreement) emerged. Annexed to itwere many agreements which related to trade in goods, trade in services, intellectual property protection, an understanding on the rules governing the settlement of disputes and a trade policyreview mechanism.
Many in the developed world welcome these new promised higher standards insuch a range of fields. deemed thisIn the word's of the Director-General, “Today, the world haschosen openness and cooperation instead of uncertainty and conflict.”
This essay will focus on the annexed agreement which established ground breaking IP protection.
1.4 Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
The TRIPS Agreement was the culmination of seven years of negotiations which took place
3Andreas F. Lowenfeld, International Economic Law (2
ed. Oxford University Press, 2001) at 71.4Michael Blakeney,
Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights: A Concise Guide to the TRIPS Agreement
(Sweet & Maxwell, 1996) at 7.5See GATT,
News of the Uruguay Round
, 21 December 1993 at 1.6John H. Jackson, “The World Trade Organization: Watershed Innovation or Cautious Small Step Forward?” (1995)
The World Economy
11. Also, John H. Jackson,
The Jurisprudence of GATT and the WTO
(Cambridge UniversityPress, 2000), at 399 – 404.