Write a brief analysis of how militant Islamic fundamentalism (Islamism) is affecting TWO of thefollowing countries: Morocco, Algeria, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, or another country of your ownchoice in the MENA study area.
Source: country reports, 2010Home to the most geographically diverse counties in Africa and located in North-eastof the continent.Sudan has an 853km coastline along the Red Sea in the northwest andshares borders with Egypt, Eritrea and Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda, DemocraticRepublic of Congo, Central African Republic, Chad and Libya. Its mountain ranges;the Jebel Marra in the West and Mount Kinyeti Imatong in the South divide thedeserts of the north from the swamps and the rain forest of the south while the River Nile splits the country from east to west. Sudan has large areas of cultivatable land,gold and cotton while South Sudan is oil rich despite this it has remained mainlyundeveloped due to civil war. 2009 Census data reveals a population of 39 million.Two major ethnic groups occupy the 967,493-sq.mile region, Arabic speaking SunniMuslims in the North (75%) and Christian/Animist Nilote in Southern Sudan (25%).(Country reports, 2010)Joint British-Egyptian colonial administration since 1896 focused on agriculturaldevelopment in the Muslim North while Southern Sudan was isolated. In the postworld war II lead up to Independence in1956 Britain sought to includeSoutherners in a federated government (Flashpoint, world conflict, 2010). As aresult, fundamental disagreement over state legislatures versus the federalgovernment and stark socio-economic distinction between north and south set thestage for violent conflict. Drawing on colonial experiences and narratives of pan-Arabism, first General Abboud pursued an agenda of Unity through Arabizationin 1958 through military rule, then, in 1969 Col. Mohammed Jaa’far Nimeirideclared an Islamic law state. Negotiations brought a ceasefire and limited autonomy for the South. However since the agreement never materialised Sudan People’s Liberation Army andMovement (SPLA/M) arose taking control over areas of southern Sudan. In 1989General el-Bashir and the National Islamic Front declared a holy jihad, counter attacks against the SPLA caused a split into SPLA-mainstream and SPLA-united: both groups are a source of friction with mainstream most influential inthe upper Nile and Southern Kordofan region. While the Sudan Allied Forces areactive in the North Eastern Darfur provinces.
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