Light pollution in the greater Dublin area, specifically light pollution created by streetlights is the main focus of this work. The purpose was to examine the existing streetlighting system in Dublin with respect to the light pollution generated andenvironmental and economic costs, and to investigate potential alternative lightsystems such as LED and Induction lamps which may be more cost beneficial. Allsystems were thoroughly investigated regarding their costs, both economic andenvironmental. Cost benefit analysis was used to determine the viability of thesealternative systems.
Light pollution, also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution, is excessive orobtrusive artificial light. It is a side effect of industrial civilization and in urban areasseverally restricts our ability to see the night sky as shown in Figure 1. Sources includebuilding exterior and interior lighting, commercial properties, illuminated sportingvenues and streetlights. Interest for the protection of the night sky is growing rapidlywith many organisations now aiming to limit light pollution worldwide.
Figure 1 Map of Earth at night
(Source: Earth Observatory, NASA, 1995)
The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) defines light pollution as
effect of artificial light including sky glow, glare, light trespass and light clutter,
decreased visibility at night and energy waste.”
 There is no legal or officialdefinition for light pollution. The first published definition of light pollution appearedin a 2000 issue of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and classifies lightpollution as
“alteration of natural light lev
els in the outdoor environment owing to
artificial light sources.”
Light pollution is a man-made problem, much like CO
emissions or noise pollution andas such can therefore be solved. Light pollution problems fall into three broadcategories: ecological, human and economic. This thesis will mainly be concerned with