Child abuse can be defined as an abusive act that causes emotional orphysical harm to a child. This includes the failure of a parent/carer toprovide sufficient care for their children or protect them from harm(Piltz & Wachtel, 2009). A child should grow up in a loving home thatencourages physical and emotional development (Coyne et al, 2010).Tragically, this is not always the case. According to the World HealthOrganization, aproximately 40 million children worldwide suffer someform of abuse (WHO, 2001). Consequently, child protection and welfareis a salient issue for paediatric nurses. The family is central to a child’scare and family-centered care is core to paediatric nursing (Bruce & Ritchie, 1997). However, the parent-nurse relationship, that is a “cornerstone of paediatric nursing care”, can come under threat as thenurse assumes a role within the child protection team (Espezal & Canam, 2003).This essay will explore the impact on the paediatric nurse’s role,working within the Children First; National Guidelines for the Protectionand Welfare of Children (hereafter refered to as the ‘Children FirstGuidelines’) (DOHC, 2010). These guidelines aim to assist in thedetection and reporting of child abuse, while keeping the family centraland putting the child’s best interests first. This essay will discuss thenurse’s role in relation to accountability and responsibility to children,families and the child protection team. This will be completed under thefollowing headings; observation, documentation, reporting,communication, being objective, training and legal implications.