number of interference fringes. This number was thenconverted to displacement information. One fringe period isequivalent to a displacement of a half of the wavelength (
/2).A commercial displacement sensor was employed as areference displacement sensor for comparison with themeasured information from the fiber interferometer. Aprogram written in Visual C++ was developed for countingthe number of fringes and plotting the displacementinformation with a resolution of
/2 on a dedicated computer.II.
In general, the classical configuration of the fiber-basedFabry-Perot interferometer for dynamic displacementmeasurement is illustrated in Fig. 1.
Laser diode50/50CouplerDetectorOptical geloutputarmVibratingtargetSensingarmR
Single-modefiber patch cord
Fig. 1 Principles of an optical fiber-based Fabry-Perotinterferometeric sensor
The optical FFPI can be approximated as a two-beaminterferometer due to the inherent property of the fiberinterferometer. When the laser diode light arrives at the fiberend-face, a portion is reflected off the fiber/air interface (R
)and the remaining light propagates through the air gap (L)with a second reflection occurring at the air/fiber interface(R
). In an interferometric sense, R
is the reference reflectioncalled the reference signal (I
) and R
is the sensing reflectionor sensing signal (I
). These reflective signals interfereconstructively or destructively based on the optical path lengthdifference between the reference and sensing signals which iscalled the interference signal . Therefore, small movementsof the vibrating target cause a change in the gap length, whichchanges the phase difference between the sensing andreference signals producing fringes.The expression forcalculating the output intensity
is given by 
I I I I I
are the reference and sensing intensities for theback reflection beams from reference and sensing signals,respectively.
represents the total phase difference betweenboth components. Since the phase is directly related to thevariation of the cavity length, any changes to the optical pathlength will result in a change to the phase-shift term given by4
π φ λ
is the refractive index of the cavity,
is the laserdiode center wavelength and
is twice the cavity lengthvariation. Therefore, the output displacement information of the mechanical vibrating target can then be obtained from thechanges in the cavity length which related to the variation of the phase difference from both signals. However, anexpression for investigating the displacement
is given by(3) which the number of fringes
in a period time beingcorresponds to the displacement value .2
The experimental set-up of the fiber-based Fabry-Perotinterferometer for dynamic displacement measurements isdesigned and illustrated in Fig. 2.
50/50couplerDetectorOptical gelVibratingtargetSensingarmFunctiongeneratorDigital oscilloscopeComputerLaser diode
OutputarmAmplifiercircuitSingle-modefiber patch cordReferencesensor
Fig. 2 Experimental set-up of fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometerfor dynamic displacement measurement
Lightwave from a single-mode fiber-pigtailed distributedfeedback laser
with a wavelength of 1550 nm,integrating an optical isolator for eliminating back-reflectionsinto the laser source, is injected into the input arm of a 50/50fiber coupler and then propagated to the sensing arm of theinterferometric device. Approximately four percent of theinjected laser light is reflected back into this fiber arm at thefiber-air interface as the reference signal while the remaininglight is next transmitted into the surface target and thenreflects off the polishing metal target which is secured to amechanical vibrator and excited via a function generator inrange of ~2 Hz – 1.5 kHz. This beam re-injected back into thefiber arm along the optical path is called the sensing signal
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 26 DECEMBER 2007 ISSN 1307-6884PWASET VOLUME 26 DECEMBER 2007 ISSN 1307-6884527© 2007 WASET.ORG