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10.1.1.74.4439

10.1.1.74.4439

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Published by Ed Trawtmam
Sensores interferométricos a fibra óptica
Sensores interferométricos a fibra óptica

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Published by: Ed Trawtmam on Aug 29, 2012
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04/16/2013

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 Abstract
An optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) isproposed and demonstrated for dynamic measurements in amechanical vibrating target. A polishing metal with a low reflectancevalue adhered to a mechanical vibrator was excited via a functiongenerator at various excitation frequencies. Output interferencefringes were generated by modulating the reference and sensingsignal at the output arm. A fringe-counting technique was used forinterpreting the displacement information on the dedicated computer.The fiber interferometer has been found the capability of thedisplacement measurements of 1.28
μ
m – 96.01
μ
m. A commercialdisplacement sensor was employed as a reference sensor forinvestigating the measurement errors from the fiber sensor. Amaximum percentage measurement error of approximately 1.59 %was obtained.
 Keywords
Optical fiber sensors, dynamic displacement, fringecounting, reference displacement sensor.
 I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 HE field of fiber optics has undergone tremendous growthand advancement over the last 25 years. Initiallyconceived as a medium to carry light and images for medicalendoscopic applications, optical fibers were later proposed inthe mid 1960’s as an adequate information carrying mediumfor telecommunication applications. Ever since, optical fibertechnology has been the subject of considerable research anddevelopment to the point that today lightwave communicationsystems have become the preferred method to transmit vastamounts of data and information from one point to another.Among the reasons why optical fibers are so attractive aretheir low loss, high bandwidth, safety, relatively low cost, lowmaintenance, etc [1].In the early 1970s, the first experiments were conducted onthe low-loss optical fiber being used, not fortelecommunications, but for sensor purposes.Such devices arecalled optical fiber sensors (OFSs). They have severaladvantages over conventional sensing technologies such assmall size, light weight, high sensitivity, high temperaturecapabilities, immunity to electromagnetic interference, andpotential for large-scale multiplexing. The increased use of 
Manuscript received November 15, 2007.Nontakorn Sathitanon is with the Department of Computer and InformationScience, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology North Bangkok, Thailand(corresponding author to provide phone: +66-2-587-8252; fax: +66-2-587-8259; e-mail: natchapath@hotmail.com, alif1999@hotmail.com).Saroj Pullteap is with Department of Mechanical Engineering, SilpakornUniversity Nakronpathom Thailand (e-mail: pullteap@hotmail.com).
optical fiber components in telecommunications networks hasresulted in mass production of several electrical and opticalcomponents which are used in optical fiber sensor systems aswell. This increased component availability has contributed toreduce optical sensor system costs [2]. They are also attractivefor applications in sensing, control and instrumentation. Inthese areas, optical fibers have made a significant impact. Forthese applications fibers are made more susceptible andsensitive to the same external mechanisms against whichfibers were made to be immune for their effective operation intelecommunications. Other advantages such as proven non-destructive testing capability, radio-frequency interferences,accessibility to difficult areas, and criteria which cannot beachieved with traditional sensing technology are propertieswhich have been exploited [3]. Conventionally, the mainphysical properties measured are the intensity, phase,wavelength and state of polarization of the guided light [4].Fiber optic interferometry (FOI) is a sub-type of OFSs thatcan thus be classified into two categories: two-beam andmultiple-beam interferometers. Two-beam interferometers canbe exploited in the Michelson, Sagnac, and Mach-Zehnderconfigurations. The interference signals are obtained frommodulating two cosinusoidal signals between reference signal,reflected light from an isolated fiber arm serving, and sensingsignal, back-reflected light from the target movement. Manyapplications use these sensors e.g. for ultrasonic location,harsh aerospace environments, and acoustic measurements[5], [6].Fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) is a typicalmultiple-beam interferometer. It consists of a single-modefiber with cleaved end faces and a sensing element, surface. The space separating of the reflecting surface is called thecavity length. The reflected light in the FFPI is wavelength-modulated in exact accordance with the cavity length. It canbe used in various sensitive applications such as measuringvelocity, displacement, strain, temperature and stiffnessmeasurements [7], [8].In this work, we used an optical fiber-based Fabry-Perotinterferometer for dynamic displacement measurements. Avibrating target was excited by a mechanical vibrator via afunction generator in various excitation frequencies. Aninterference signal was generated from the modulationbetween the two sets of reference and sensing signals at theoutput arm of the fiber interferometer detected by a detector.A fringe-counting technique was used for counting the
A Fiber Optic Interferometric Sensor forDynamic Measurement
N. Sathitanon,
and
S. Pullteap
 
T
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 26 DECEMBER 2007 ISSN 1307-6884PWASET VOLUME 26 DECEMBER 2007 ISSN 1307-6884526© 2007 WASET.ORG
 
 number of interference fringes. This number was thenconverted to displacement information. One fringe period isequivalent to a displacement of a half of the wavelength (
λ
 /2).A commercial displacement sensor was employed as areference displacement sensor for comparison with themeasured information from the fiber interferometer. Aprogram written in Visual C++ was developed for countingthe number of fringes and plotting the displacementinformation with a resolution of 
λ
 /2 on a dedicated computer.II.
 
P
RINCIPLE OF
O
PERATION
 In general, the classical configuration of the fiber-basedFabry-Perot interferometer for dynamic displacementmeasurement is illustrated in Fig. 1.
Laser diode50/50CouplerDetectorOptical geloutputarmVibratingtargetSensingarmR
1
SensingarmR
2
Fiber patchcordI
2
I
2
I
1
InterferencesignalLI
1
I
2
Single-modefiber patch cord
 
Fig. 1 Principles of an optical fiber-based Fabry-Perotinterferometeric sensor
The optical FFPI can be approximated as a two-beaminterferometer due to the inherent property of the fiberinterferometer. When the laser diode light arrives at the fiberend-face, a portion is reflected off the fiber/air interface (R
1
)and the remaining light propagates through the air gap (L)with a second reflection occurring at the air/fiber interface(R
2
). In an interferometric sense, R
1
is the reference reflectioncalled the reference signal (I
1
) and R
2
is the sensing reflectionor sensing signal (I
2
). These reflective signals interfereconstructively or destructively based on the optical path lengthdifference between the reference and sensing signals which iscalled the interference signal [9]. Therefore, small movementsof the vibrating target cause a change in the gap length, whichchanges the phase difference between the sensing andreference signals producing fringes.The expression forcalculating the output intensity
(I)
is given by [10]
φ 
Δ++=
cos2
2121
 I  I  I  I  I 
(1)where I
1
and I
2
are the reference and sensing intensities for theback reflection beams from reference and sensing signals,respectively. 
Δ
φ 
represents the total phase difference betweenboth components. Since the phase is directly related to thevariation of the cavity length, any changes to the optical pathlength will result in a change to the phase-shift term given by4
nL
π φ λ 
ΔΔ =
(2)where
n
is the refractive index of the cavity,
λ
is the laserdiode center wavelength and
Δ
 L
is twice the cavity lengthvariation. Therefore, the output displacement information of the mechanical vibrating target can then be obtained from thechanges in the cavity length which related to the variation of the phase difference from both signals. However, anexpression for investigating the displacement
(D)
is given by(3) which the number of fringes
(N)
in a period time beingcorresponds to the displacement value [11].2
 D
λ 
=
(3)III.
 
E
XPERIMENT AND
R
ESULTS
 The experimental set-up of the fiber-based Fabry-Perotinterferometer for dynamic displacement measurements isdesigned and illustrated in Fig. 2.
50/50couplerDetectorOptical gelVibratingtargetSensingarmFunctiongeneratorDigital oscilloscopeComputerLaser diode
1550
 nm
=
OutputarmAmplifiercircuitSingle-modefiber patch cordReferencesensor
 
Fig. 2 Experimental set-up of fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometerfor dynamic displacement measurement
Lightwave from a single-mode fiber-pigtailed distributedfeedback laser
(LASERMATE)
with a wavelength of 1550 nm,integrating an optical isolator for eliminating back-reflectionsinto the laser source, is injected into the input arm of a 50/50fiber coupler and then propagated to the sensing arm of theinterferometric device. Approximately four percent of theinjected laser light is reflected back into this fiber arm at thefiber-air interface as the reference signal while the remaininglight is next transmitted into the surface target and thenreflects off the polishing metal target which is secured to amechanical vibrator and excited via a function generator inrange of ~2 Hz – 1.5 kHz. This beam re-injected back into thefiber arm along the optical path is called the sensing signal
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 26 DECEMBER 2007 ISSN 1307-6884PWASET VOLUME 26 DECEMBER 2007 ISSN 1307-6884527© 2007 WASET.ORG
 
 while another arm of the fiber coupler (see Fig. 2) is not usedand is put into the optical gel for reducing or eliminatingreflection losses. Two interfering beams (reference andsensing) from the sensing arm are then guided along theoutput arm of the fiber coupler and are next detected by adetector. The interference signal is thus generated and thendisplayed on a digital oscilloscope. Fringe processing can thenbe carried out using a dedicated computer to obtain thedisplacement information via a developed program written inVisual C++ language. A commercial displacement sensor
(Keyence model EX305V)
with a sensitivity of ~0.4
μ
m isemployed as the reference sensor for comparison with dataobtained from the fiber interferometer. A set of theinterference signal measured by the fiber interferometer andthe reference displacement curve from the reference sensor aredisplayed in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 Output interference fringes measured by FFPI sensor anddisplacement curve from reference displacement sensor
The figure showed the experimental results from theexcitation frequency and amplitude of ~900 Hz and 5 V,respectively. The output interference signal exploited thenumber of fringes of 11 signals in a time period, leading to adisplacement of ~8.6 µm was achieved while the outputdisplacement measured by reference sensor was 8.69 µm. Inaddition, the summary of the output displacement informationobtained from the excitation frequency in various ranges from2 Hz to 1.5 kHz are then plotted in Fig. 4.
Frequency (Hz)
   D   i  s  p   l  a  c  e  m  e  n   t   (  m  e   t  e  r  s   )
 Dmax Dmin
501500
0,E+003,E-056,E-059,E-051,E-04040080012001600
 
 Dmax = 96.01 µm Dmin = 1.28 µm
 
Fig. 4 Relationship between variation frequencies and displacementinformation measured by FFPI sensor
The experimental results found the capability of the fiberinterferometer for dynamic displacement measurements invarious excitation frequencies with a minimum and maximumdisplacement of ~1.28 µm and ~96.01 µm, respectively wereachieved, while the reference sensor obtained minimum andmaximum displacements of 1.25 µm and 96.39 µm,respectively. By comparison the output displacementsinformation between the fiber interferometer and referencesensor, a maximum percentage dynamic displacementmeasurement error of 1.59 % was obtained. The relationshipof the output dynamic displacements measured by the twosensors is plotted in Fig. 5.
   D   i  s  p   l  a  c  e  m  e  n   t  m  e  a  s  u  r  e   d   b  y  r  e   f  e  r  e  n  c  e  s  e  n  s  o  r   (  m  e   t  e  r  s   )
Displacement measured by fiber interferometer sensor(meters)
D
max(ref)
= 96.39 µmD
min(ref)
= 1.255 µmD
max(FFPI)
= 96.01 µmD
min(FFPI)
= 1.275 µm
0,E+004,E-058,E-051,E-040,E+004,E-058,E-051,E-04
 
Fig. 5 Relationship between output displacement informationmeasured by FFPI sensor and reference displacement sensor
The developed program was employed for fringes countingprocessing and plotting of the displacement information whichwas associated with the output interference signal. At eachstep the output displacement information is related to thenumber of fringes which were generated using the fringescounting technique. This technique counts each peak ormaximum intensity of the output interference fringes as a onenumber of fringes. Therefore, the relationship between theoutput interference signal measured by the FFPI sensor andthe displacement curve which was plotted by the developedprogram with the resolution of 
λ
 /2 (or ~755 nm at
λ
laser
= 1550nm) can be obtained. It is illustrated in Fig. 6.
   D   i  s  p   l  a  c  e  m  e  n   t
 
   (  m  e   t  e  r  s   )
Time (seconds)
   I  n   t  e  n  s   i   t  y   (  m   V   )
Resolution on stepsof ~755 nm
 N =
123....11
 
Fig. 6 Output interference signal and displacement curve plotted bydeveloped program written in Visual C++
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 26 DECEMBER 2007 ISSN 1307-6884PWASET VOLUME 26 DECEMBER 2007 ISSN 1307-6884528© 2007 WASET.ORG

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