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Dynamic Sub-Channel Allocation in Multiuser OFDM Systems to Achieve Variable Data Rate

Dynamic Sub-Channel Allocation in Multiuser OFDM Systems to Achieve Variable Data Rate

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Published by IDES
This paper investigates the problem of dynamic
multiuser subchannel allocation in the downlink OFDM
systems. In traditional TDMA or FDMA systems, resource
allocation for each user is non-adaptively fixed. Since the
subchannel allocations among the users are not optimized, a
group of users is likely to suffer from poor channel gains
resulting from large path loss and random fading. To resolve
this problem a low-complexity adaptive subchannel allocation
algorithm is proposed in this paper. By adaptively assigning
frequency subchannels, n take advantage of channel diversity
among users in different locations, which is called Multiuser
diversity. The capacity of MU-OFDM is maximized when each
subchannel is assigned to the user with the best channel-tonoise
ratio for that subchannel. However, fairness among the
users cannot generally be achieved with such a scheme. In this
paper, a set of proportional fairness constraints is imposed to
assure that each user achieve a required data rate, that ensures
quality of service. In the proposed algorithm, subchannel
allocation is performed by assuming an equal power
distribution.
This paper investigates the problem of dynamic
multiuser subchannel allocation in the downlink OFDM
systems. In traditional TDMA or FDMA systems, resource
allocation for each user is non-adaptively fixed. Since the
subchannel allocations among the users are not optimized, a
group of users is likely to suffer from poor channel gains
resulting from large path loss and random fading. To resolve
this problem a low-complexity adaptive subchannel allocation
algorithm is proposed in this paper. By adaptively assigning
frequency subchannels, n take advantage of channel diversity
among users in different locations, which is called Multiuser
diversity. The capacity of MU-OFDM is maximized when each
subchannel is assigned to the user with the best channel-tonoise
ratio for that subchannel. However, fairness among the
users cannot generally be achieved with such a scheme. In this
paper, a set of proportional fairness constraints is imposed to
assure that each user achieve a required data rate, that ensures
quality of service. In the proposed algorithm, subchannel
allocation is performed by assuming an equal power
distribution.

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ACEEE Int. J. on Communication, Vol. 02, No. 01, Mar 2011
© 2011 ACEEE
DOI: 01.IJCom.02.01.16236
Dynamic Sub-Channel Allocation in MultiuserOFDM Systems to Achieve Variable Data Rate
Harish Kumar
#1
, G. Venkat Babu
##2
, Upadhayay M D
*3
#
Bhagwant Institute of Technology, Muzaffarnagar, U.P., India
1
hc78@rediffmail.com
##
H U, Chennai, India.
2
gvenkatbabu@rediffmail.com
*
IIT Delhi, India.
 Abstract -
This paper investigates the problem of dynamicmultiuser subchannel allocation in the downlink OFDMsystems. In traditional TDMA or FDMA systems, resourceallocation for each user is non-adaptively fixed. Since thesubchannel allocations among the users are not optimized, agroup of users is likely to suffer from poor channel gainsresulting from large path loss and random fading. To resolvethis problem a low-complexity adaptive subchannel allocationalgorithm is proposed in this paper. By adaptively assigningfrequency subchannels, n take advantage of channel diversityamong users in different locations, which is called Multiuserdiversity. The capacity of MU-OFDM is maximized when eachsubchannel is assigned to the user with the best channel-to-noise ratio for that subchannel. However, fairness among theusers cannot generally be achieved with such a scheme. In thispaper, a set of proportional fairness constraints is imposed toassure that each user achieve a required data rate, that ensuresquality of service. In the proposed algorithm, subchannelallocation is performed by assuming an equal powerdistribution.
 Index Terms -
OFDM, Sub-Channel, Multiuser, Variable DataRate.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
In the wireless environment, multipath propagation occursdue to many reflections of the transmitted signal. This leadsto the reception of multiple replicas of delayed versions of the transmitted signal. As a consequence, fading and intersymbol interference (ISI) occur. If the data rate is low andthe symbol duration is large as compared to the maximumdelay of the channel, then ISI can be combated without anyequalization. As the distance range or the data rate increases,ISI becomes more severe and channel equalization has to beprovided, otherwise it imposes a constraint on the maximumachievable data rate [1-4]. Thus, the time-varying nature of wireless channel and its inherent randomness makes thechoice of modulation technique very critical. So, the needof hour is to mitigate the effects of multi-path propagationso that high data rate applications as WLAN, DAB, and DVBetc. can be supported. This requirement implies a situation,where a high data rate is to be transmitted over a channelwith a relatively large maximum delay. Such an ISI-immuneand bandwidth-efficient communication system is given bythe OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)transmission technique. It is a wideband multi-carriermodulation technique in which a high-rate data stream isdivided into a number of low-rate data streams andtransmitted simultaneously over a number of orthogonal sub-carriers [5-6]. Thus, in each sub-channel, the symbolduration is long as compared to the maximum delay of thechannel and ISI can be mitigated. The orthogonality of carriers makes the system bandwidth-efficient. It can beseen as either a modulation or a multiplexing technique. TheOFDM signals are easily generated using FFT devices, butwith some drawbacks as high peak-to-average power ratio(PAPR) and synchronization issues [7-8].The common problem found in high speed communicationis inter-symbol interference (ISI) which occurs when atransmission interferes with itself and the receiver cannotdecode the transmission correctly. OFDM is especiallysuitable for high-speed communication due to its resistanceto ISI. As communication systems increase their informationtransfer speed, the time for each transmission necessarilybecomes shorter. Since the delay time caused by multipathremains constant, ISI becomes a limitation in high-data-ratecommunication. OFDM avoids this problem by sendingmany low speed transmissions simultaneously. This longersymbol duration leads to reduced problems with ISI [1].The principle of the OFDM technique is to split a high-rate data stream into a number of lower rate streams, whichare then simultaneously transmitted on a number of orthogonal subcarriers. As the symbol duration is increasedfor lower rate parallel streams, the relative amount of dispersion in time caused by multipath delay spreaddecreases. Moreover, the ISI can be almost completelyeliminated by introducing a guard interval, which is a cyclicextension of the OFDM symbol [1].In a multiuser OFDM system, each of the multiple users’signals may undergo independent fading because users maynot be in the same locations. Therefore, the probability thatall the users’ signals on the same subcarrier are in deep fadingis very low. Hence, for a specific subcarrier, if a user’s signalis in deep fading, the others may not be in deep fading andthe user in a good channel condition may be allowed totransmit data on that subcarrier yielding multiuser diversityeffects [2].OFDM allows digital data to be efficiently and reliablytransmitted over a radio channel, even in multipathenvironments. OFDM transmits data by using a large numberof narrow bandwidth carriers. These carriers are regularlyspaced in frequency, forming a block of spectrum. Thefrequency spacing and time synchronization of the carriersis chosen in such a way that the carriers are orthogonal,
 
ACEEE Int. J. on Communication, Vol. 02, No. 01, Mar 2011
© 2011 ACEEE
DOI: 01.IJCom.02.01.16237meaning that they do not cause interference to each other.This is despite the carriers overlapping each other in thefrequency domain. The term OFDM is derived from the factthat the digital data is sent using many carriers, each of adifferent frequency thereby leading to Frequency DivisionMultiplexing and these carriers are orthogonal to each other,hence the term used Orthogonal Frequency DivisionMultiplexing [1].II. S
YSTEM
M
ODEL
Fig. 1. Multiuser OFDM transmitter and receiver.
A multiuser OFDM system is shown in Fig. 1. This OFDMsystem consists of base station transmitter controller at basestation and receiver.
 
The transmitter section converts digitaldata to be transmitted, into a mapping of subcarrier amplitudeand phase. It then transforms this spectral representation of the data into the time domain using an Inverse Fast FourierTransform (IFFT).
 
The receiver performs the reverseoperation of the transmitter, mixing the RF signal to baseband for processing, then using a Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) to analyze the signal in the frequency domain. Theamplitude and phase of the subcarriers is then picked outand converted back to digital data.At the base station, all channel information is sent to thesubchannel allocation algorithm through feedback channelsfrom all mobile users. The subchannel allocation made bythe algorithm is forwarded to the OFDM transmitter at basestation. The transmitter then selects different numbers of bitsfrom different users to form an OFDM symbol. Thesubchannel allocation is updated as fast as the channelinformation is collected. Then, a perfect instantaneouschannel information is assumed to be available at the basestation. It is also assumed that the subchannel allocationinformation is sent to each user by a separate channel [3, 5].Mathematically, the optimization problem considered indynamic subchannel allocation is formulated aswhere
K
is the total number of users,
N
is the total number of subchannels,
N
0
 
is the power spectral density of AWGN,
B
is the total available bandwidth
.P
total
 
is the total available power.
p
k,n
 
is the power allocated for user k in thesubchannel nh
k,n
is the channel gain for user k in subchannel n,and ñ
k,n
can only be either 1 or 0, indicating whethersubchannel n is used by user k or not.
λ
 
is the system parameter for proportional rates.The subchannel allocation is done first by assuming equalpower distribution and then power distribution is done bywater filling theorem.The capacity for user
, denoted as R
, which is defined as
 
ACEEE Int. J. on Communication, Vol. 02, No. 01, Mar 2011
© 2011 ACEEE
DOI: 01.IJCom.02.01.16238III. S
UBOPTIMAL
S
UBCHANNEL
A
LLOCATION
In the suboptimal subchannel allocation algorithm,equal power distribution is assumed across all subchannels.
 N PP
totaltot 
=
,
where P
k, tot
=Total power allocated to user k.H
k,n
is the channel-to-noise ratio for user
in subchannel
n
and defined by
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
 N  B N h H 
nn
02,,
is the set of subchannels assigned to user
.
A flowchart is developed for implementing the suboptimalsubchannel allocation as shown in Fig. 2. The suboptimalsubchannel allocation achieved by, initializing the setcapacity as R
= 0, for k=1, 2, …., K and subchannelsn={1,2,….,N}. Now, for users k = 1 to K, find the subchannelwith highest channel-to-noise ratio from all subchannels from1 to N. Update the capacity R
k..
If all the subchannels are notallocated, then the process is repeated. In the mean timecontinue to find the user with lowest proportional capacityamong all users. For found user, find the subchannel withhighest channel-to-noise ratio from all subchannels, andupdate the capacity. With this algorithm the suboptimalsubchannel allocation is achieved [4].The principle of the suboptimal subchannel algorithm isfor each user to use the sub channel with high channel-to-noise ratio as much as possible. At each iteration, the userwith the lowest proportional capacity has the option to pick which subchannel to use. The subchannel allocationalgorithm is suboptimal, because equal power distributionin all sub channels is assumed. After subchannel allocation,only coarse proportional fairness is achieved. The goal of maximizing the sum capacity while maintaining proportionalfairness is achieved by the power allocation [4].
Fig. 2. Flowchart for suboptimal subchannel allocation.
IV. R
ESULTS
 
AND
D
ISCUSSIONS
The algorithm developed in the previous section iscoded on matlab platform. In this section simulation resultsare presented to show the performance of the proposedsubchannel allocation algorithm.The simulation is carried out for a system with number of subcannels N being 8, and the number of users K being 2.For the system parameter
λ
1
and
λ
2
being unity 1, the capacityof user-1 and user 2 is optimized using the above algorithmto
R
1
= 4.9767 bits\s\Hz
and
R
2
= 4.477 bits\s\Hz
Similarly for the system parameter
λ
1
= 1 and
λ
2
= 2, thecapacity of user-1 and user 2 is optimized as
R
1
=3.7701 bits\sR
2
=5.5378 bits\s

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