ACEEE Int. J. on Communication, Vol. 02, No. 01, Mar 2011
© 2011 ACEEE
Dynamic Sub-Channel Allocation in MultiuserOFDM Systems to Achieve Variable Data Rate
, G. Venkat Babu
, Upadhayay M D
Bhagwant Institute of Technology, Muzaffarnagar, U.P., India
H U, Chennai, India.
IIT Delhi, India.
This paper investigates the problem of dynamicmultiuser subchannel allocation in the downlink OFDMsystems. In traditional TDMA or FDMA systems, resourceallocation for each user is non-adaptively fixed. Since thesubchannel allocations among the users are not optimized, agroup of users is likely to suffer from poor channel gainsresulting from large path loss and random fading. To resolvethis problem a low-complexity adaptive subchannel allocationalgorithm is proposed in this paper. By adaptively assigningfrequency subchannels, n take advantage of channel diversityamong users in different locations, which is called Multiuserdiversity. The capacity of MU-OFDM is maximized when eachsubchannel is assigned to the user with the best channel-to-noise ratio for that subchannel. However, fairness among theusers cannot generally be achieved with such a scheme. In thispaper, a set of proportional fairness constraints is imposed toassure that each user achieve a required data rate, that ensuresquality of service. In the proposed algorithm, subchannelallocation is performed by assuming an equal powerdistribution.
Index Terms -
OFDM, Sub-Channel, Multiuser, Variable DataRate.
In the wireless environment, multipath propagation occursdue to many reflections of the transmitted signal. This leadsto the reception of multiple replicas of delayed versions of the transmitted signal. As a consequence, fading and intersymbol interference (ISI) occur. If the data rate is low andthe symbol duration is large as compared to the maximumdelay of the channel, then ISI can be combated without anyequalization. As the distance range or the data rate increases,ISI becomes more severe and channel equalization has to beprovided, otherwise it imposes a constraint on the maximumachievable data rate [1-4]. Thus, the time-varying nature of wireless channel and its inherent randomness makes thechoice of modulation technique very critical. So, the needof hour is to mitigate the effects of multi-path propagationso that high data rate applications as WLAN, DAB, and DVBetc. can be supported. This requirement implies a situation,where a high data rate is to be transmitted over a channelwith a relatively large maximum delay. Such an ISI-immuneand bandwidth-efficient communication system is given bythe OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)transmission technique. It is a wideband multi-carriermodulation technique in which a high-rate data stream isdivided into a number of low-rate data streams andtransmitted simultaneously over a number of orthogonal sub-carriers [5-6]. Thus, in each sub-channel, the symbolduration is long as compared to the maximum delay of thechannel and ISI can be mitigated. The orthogonality of carriers makes the system bandwidth-efficient. It can beseen as either a modulation or a multiplexing technique. TheOFDM signals are easily generated using FFT devices, butwith some drawbacks as high peak-to-average power ratio(PAPR) and synchronization issues [7-8].The common problem found in high speed communicationis inter-symbol interference (ISI) which occurs when atransmission interferes with itself and the receiver cannotdecode the transmission correctly. OFDM is especiallysuitable for high-speed communication due to its resistanceto ISI. As communication systems increase their informationtransfer speed, the time for each transmission necessarilybecomes shorter. Since the delay time caused by multipathremains constant, ISI becomes a limitation in high-data-ratecommunication. OFDM avoids this problem by sendingmany low speed transmissions simultaneously. This longersymbol duration leads to reduced problems with ISI .The principle of the OFDM technique is to split a high-rate data stream into a number of lower rate streams, whichare then simultaneously transmitted on a number of orthogonal subcarriers. As the symbol duration is increasedfor lower rate parallel streams, the relative amount of dispersion in time caused by multipath delay spreaddecreases. Moreover, the ISI can be almost completelyeliminated by introducing a guard interval, which is a cyclicextension of the OFDM symbol .In a multiuser OFDM system, each of the multiple users’signals may undergo independent fading because users maynot be in the same locations. Therefore, the probability thatall the users’ signals on the same subcarrier are in deep fadingis very low. Hence, for a specific subcarrier, if a user’s signalis in deep fading, the others may not be in deep fading andthe user in a good channel condition may be allowed totransmit data on that subcarrier yielding multiuser diversityeffects .OFDM allows digital data to be efficiently and reliablytransmitted over a radio channel, even in multipathenvironments. OFDM transmits data by using a large numberof narrow bandwidth carriers. These carriers are regularlyspaced in frequency, forming a block of spectrum. Thefrequency spacing and time synchronization of the carriersis chosen in such a way that the carriers are orthogonal,