OSTEOPOROSIS RISK FACTORS
Nonmodifiable Risk Factors
Gender and Age: The leading causes of osteoporosis are a drop in estrogen in women at thetime of menopause and a drop in testosterone in men. Women over age 50 and men over age70 have a higher risk for osteoporosis.
Race and Heredity: While osteoporosis occurs in people from all ethnicgroups, European or Asian ancestry predisposes for osteoporosis. Those with a familyhistory of fracture or osteoporosis are at an increased risk; the heritability of the fracture,as well as low bone mineral density, are relatively high, ranging from 25 to 80%.
Chronic rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease, eating disorders
Taking corticosteroid medications (prednisone, methylprednisolone) every day for morethan 3 months, or taking some antiseizure drugs
History of hormone treatment for prostate cancer or breast cancer
Modifiable Risk Factors
Vitamin D deficiency: Low circulating Vitamin D is common among the elderlyworldwide. Mild vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increasedparathyroidhormone(PTH) production. PTH increases bone resorption, leading to bone loss. Apositive association exists between serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol levels and bonemineral density, while PTH is negatively associated with bone mineral density
Drinking a large amount of alcohol: Although small amounts of alcohol are probablybeneficial (bone density increases with increasing alcohol intake), chronic heavy drinking(alcohol intake greater than three units/day) probably increases fracture risk despite anybeneficial effects on bone density.
Low body weight
Smoking: Many studies have associated smoking with decreased bone health, but themechanisms are unclear. Tobacco smoking has been proposed to inhibit the activity of osteoblasts, and is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. Smoking also results inincreased breakdown of exogenous estrogen, lower body weight and earlier menopause,all of which contribute to lower bone mineral density.
Malnutrition: Nutrition has an important and complex role in maintenance of good bone.Identified risk factors include low dietary calcium and/or phosphorus, magnesium, zinc,boron, iron, fluoride, copper, vitamins A, K, E and C (and D where skin exposure tosunlight provides an inadequate supply). Excess sodium is a risk factor. High bloodacidity may be diet-related, and is a known antagonist of bone.
Immobility:Bone remodelingoccurs in response to physical stress, so physical inactivitycan lead to significant bone loss.
Endurance training: In female endurance athletes, large volumes of training can lead todecreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis.