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Speech Correlates of Cognitive Function in Older Speakers

Speech Correlates of Cognitive Function in Older Speakers

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An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Ivan Rochford. Originally submitted for Engineering at None, with lecturer Prof Richard Reilly in the category of Engineering & Mechanical Sciences
An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Ivan Rochford. Originally submitted for Engineering at None, with lecturer Prof Richard Reilly in the category of Engineering & Mechanical Sciences

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Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 30, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/27/2013

 
 i
Speech Correlates of Cognitive Functionin Older Speakers
 
 i
Contents
Contents ......................................................................................................................................... iTable of Figures............................................................................................................................ ivTable of Tables .............................................................................................................................. v1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 12. Speech and Cognitive Function ............................................................................................ 52.1 Speech Production ........................................................................................................ 5
2.1.1
 
Articulation ....................................................................................................................................... 6
 
2.1.2
 
Voiced Phonemes ............................................................................................................................. 7
 
2.1.3
 
The Effect of Age on Speech ............................................................................................................. 7
 2.2 Cognitive Model of Speech Production ........................................................................ 72.3 Neurological Model of Speech Production ................................................................... 92.4 Using Speech to Assess Cognitive Function ................................................................ 10
2.4.1
 
Pauses............................................................................................................................................. 11
 
2.4.2
 
Utterances ...................................................................................................................................... 13
 
2.4.3
 
Reading Aloud ................................................................................................................................ 14
 2.5 Project Objective and Hypotheses.............................................................................. 152.6 Chapter Summary ....................................................................................................... 153. Methodology...................................................................................................................... 173.1 Data Acquisition .......................................................................................................... 17
3.1.1
 
Participants ..................................................................................................................................... 17
 
3.1.2
 
MMSE ............................................................................................................................................. 17
 
3.1.3
 
Reading Task ................................................................................................................................... 18
 
3.1.4
 
Audio Corpus .................................................................................................................................. 18
 3.2 Features ...................................................................................................................... 18
3.2.1
 
Pause and Utterance Duration Distribution Parameters ................................................................ 18
 
3.2.2
 
Temporal Features ......................................................................................................................... 19
 
3.2.3
 
Optimum Minimum Long Pause Duration Threshold ..................................................................... 20
 3.3 Data Processing .......................................................................................................... 21
3.3.1
 
Identification of Pauses and Utterances ......................................................................................... 21
 
 
 iiContents
3.3.2
 
Distribution Fitting ......................................................................................................................... 23
 
3.3.3
 
Temporal Feature Extraction .......................................................................................................... 25
 3.4 Variance Testing of Features ...................................................................................... 25
3.4.1
 
Unpaired t-Test............................................................................................................................... 26
 
3.4.2
 
Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test ................................................................................................................ 27
 
3.4.3
 
Inference ........................................................................................................................................ 27
 3.5 Chapter Summary ....................................................................................................... 274. Results ................................................................................................................................. 294.1 Distribution Parameters ............................................................................................. 29
4.1.1
 
Goodness of Fit Tests ..................................................................................................................... 29
 
4.1.2
 
Variance Test Results...................................................................................................................... 29
 4.2 Temporal Features ...................................................................................................... 32
4.2.1
 
Variance Tests Results .................................................................................................................... 32
 4.3 Summary of Results .................................................................................................... 335. Discussion ........................................................................................................................... 345.1 Distribution Fits .......................................................................................................... 34
5.1.1
 
Pause Duration Distributions .......................................................................................................... 34
 
5.1.2
 
Utterance Duration Distributions ................................................................................................... 35
 5.2 Distribution Parameters ............................................................................................. 36
5.2.1
 
Inference ........................................................................................................................................ 36
 
5.2.2
 
Critical Assessment of Performance ............................................................................................... 36
 5.3 Temporal Parameters ................................................................................................. 37
5.3.1
 
Inference ........................................................................................................................................ 37
 
5.3.2
 
Comparison of the Performance of the Two Sets of Temporal Features ....................................... 38
 5.4 Discussion Summary ................................................................................................... 396. Recommended Further Research and Development ......................................................... 41
6.1
 
Verification and Optimisation of Pause and Utterance Identification Algorithm ........................... 41
 
6.2
 
Multivariate Statistical Analysis ...................................................................................................... 41
 
6.3
 
Development of a Classifier ............................................................................................................ 42
 
6.4
 
Accounting for Reading Ability ....................................................................................................... 42
 
6.5
 
Accounting for Differences in Language, Accent and Speech Rate ................................................ 43
 
6.6
 
Longitudinal Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 43
 
6.6
 
Time Series Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 43
 7. Summary and Conclusion ................................................................................................... 447.1 Project Summary ........................................................................................................ 447.2 Conclusion................................................................................................................... 45References .................................................................................................................................. 46

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