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The Mathematics behind Google

The Mathematics behind Google

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An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Aidan Hanway. Originally submitted for Mathematical Sciences at None, with lecturer Colum Watt in the category of Mathematical & Physical Sciences
An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Aidan Hanway. Originally submitted for Mathematical Sciences at None, with lecturer Colum Watt in the category of Mathematical & Physical Sciences

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Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 30, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/27/2013

 
Table of Contents
i)
Abstract
ii)
AcknowledgementsTable of Contents _______________________________________________________ 
1
 Introduction ___________________________________________________________ 
3
 1. Modelling The Internet_________________________________________________ 
4
 
Graphing the Internet………………………………………………………....... 4Dangling Nodes ……..………………………………………………………… 6Alternative Method for Dangling Nodes ……………………………………… 8The Google matrix……………………………………………………………… 11
2. Properties of the Google matrix_________________________________________ 
13
 
Google Matrix Elements…………………………………………………………13Stochastic Matrices………………………………………………………………15Stationary Probability Vector……………………………………………………21
3. Markov chains_______________________________________________________ 
23
 
Transition Matrices………………………………………………………………23Observing Limits and uniqueness ………………………………………..……...28Absorbing States/Classes……………………………………………………...…30First Passage Time……………………………………………………………….31
4. Numerical Methods___________________________________________________ 
33
 
Gauss-Seidel Method…………………………………………………………….33The Power Method………………………………………………………………35Convergence Factors……………………………………………………………..37Ranking…………………………………………………………………………..38 page 1
 
5. Alternative methods__________________________________________________ 
41
 
Alternative method for steady state vector………………………………………41Sherman Morrison Formula……………………………………………………...42Woodbury Formula………………………………………………………………44Addition of Webpages…………………………………………………………...46Inversion by Partitioning………………………………………………………....50
Conclusion____________________________________________________________ 
53
 Bibliography__________________________________________________________ 
54
 
 page 2
 
Introduction
A number of companies use it, but few really understand how it works. Google PageRank has become arguably the most important algorithm developed for the Internet. Prior to thediscovery of PageRank, search engines determined relevance of a webpage using suchfactors as word association. While these factors still play a role and have grown since thedevelopment of PageRank Google states they are not at the heart of search results,PageRank is.What PageRank essentially does is interpret an Internet user as someone taking a random path through the internet via links on webpages. A page linking to another page can beconsidered a vote for that webpage, the more votes you cast the less impact they have.The total number of votes a webpage has contributes to the impact the votes it casts has.Google ranks webpages through this voting system before giving a search result. Rankingwebpages through this method assist in the spreading of ideas and information and hasalso proven to be effective for Google as a company.The project formally defines processes within the PageRank algorithm, assignsestablished methods to it, and expands on those methods. What is achieved is a detailedmathematical guide of PageRank that also gives alternative models and solutions to problems. The material covered comes from fields of mathematics including GraphTheory, Linear Algebra, Markov Chains, and Numerical Analysis. The PageRank Algorithm is essentially an extremely large Markov process however each of the aboveareas play a vital role in understanding the ranking process. page 3

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