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Does algae bio-fuel have the potential to replace fossil derived fuels in transport?

Does algae bio-fuel have the potential to replace fossil derived fuels in transport?

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An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Paul McGlew. Originally submitted for Transport, Operations and Technology at None, with lecturer Denis Brazil in the category of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Paul McGlew. Originally submitted for Transport, Operations and Technology at None, with lecturer Denis Brazil in the category of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences

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Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 30, 2012
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10/27/2013

 
Does algae bio-fuel have the potential to replace fossil derived fuels intransport?
by Paul McGlew Dt028/4 29
th
march 2011For Denis Brazil 
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Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms..............................................................5Declaration........................................................................................................6Acknowledgements...........................................................................................7Abstract.............................................................................................................8Aims and Objectives.........................................................................................9Chapter1: Introduction..................................................................................11
1.2 Need for an alternative to fossil-fuels..................................................111.3 Renewable energy..................................................................................111.4 Electric Motors......................................................................................121.5 Hydrogen Fuel cell technology.............................................................121.6 Bio fuel....................................................................................................131.7 First Generation bio-fuel......................................................................141.8 Second Generation bio-fuel..................................................................141.9 Ethanol ..................................................................................................141.1.1 Bio diesel (100)...................................................................................151.1.2 Conclusion...........................................................................................16
Chapter 2 Literature Review.........................................................................16Chapter 3: Algae as a biofuel........................................................................203.1 Introduction.............................................................................................20
3.2 What is Algae? ......................................................................................213.3 Micro and Macro-algae.........................................................................213.4 Advantages of using algae for bio-fuel compared to other crops?....223.5 Fuel products that can be produced from algae.................................233.7 Climate needed to grow micro-algae...................................................243.8 Strains.....................................................................................................24
.....................................................................................................25
3.9 Conclusion..............................................................................................25
Chapter 4: The process of turning algae into biofuel..................................26
4.1 Introduction...........................................................................................264.2 Process ...................................................................................................274.3 Micro-algae requirements.....................................................................274.4 Source of C02.........................................................................................274.5 Culture....................................................................................................284.6 Open pond..............................................................................................28
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4.7 PBR'S (Photo-bioreactors)...................................................................304.8 Harvesting the algae..............................................................................314.9: Sedimentation.......................................................................................324.1.1: Centrifugation...................................................................................324.1.2 Filtration.............................................................................................324.1.3 Flotation..............................................................................................334.1.4 Extracting oil from algae...................................................................334.1.5 Trans-esterification.............................................................................344.1.6 Conclusion...........................................................................................35
Chapter 5: Economics and environmental impacts ...................................39
5.1 Introduction...........................................................................................395.2 Costs........................................................................................................395.3 Land usage.............................................................................................405.4 Environmental .....................................................................................415.5 Conclusion..............................................................................................44
Chapter 6: Current status of algae bio-fuel industry today?.....................45
6.1 Introduction...........................................................................................456.2 Research and Developements...............................................................456.3 Interview and visit to MABFUEL research facility............................476.4 Potential in Ireland...............................................................................486.5 Cultivation systems...............................................................................486.6 Micro-algae Genetic modification........................................................496.7 Extraction Methods ..............................................................................496.8 Current status of algal biofuel production.........................................496.9 Conclusion..............................................................................................50
Chapter 7: What is the future of algae biofuel?..........................................51
7.1 Introduction...........................................................................................517.2 Technology Advancements....................................................................517.3 Anaerobic Digestion of remaining biomass.........................................537.4 Hybrid Refinery Concept....................................................................54
Chapter 8: Conclusion..................................................................................56
Refference.....................................................................................................59Appendices...................................................................................................64
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