Chapter 2Literature Review2. IntroductionChapter two consists of a literature review of childhood obesity. A literature review is an accountof what has been published on a topic by accredited researchers and scholars (Hart, 2012). Overthe past two decades, the paediatric prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased globally(Onis and Lobstein, 2010). Obesity is a worldwide problem occurring as a result of energy intakeexceeding energy expenditure. Sedentary lifestyles as well as additional environmental andgenetic factors play a role in the development of obesity. In general, the expanding incidence of obesity may be a consequence of social, economic, and cultural problems (Al-Isa
2010).Despite a common perception that obesity in childhood is a cosmetic issue, the research evidenceindicates that it does matter to physical and psychological health, with adverse health risks duringchildhood and later life (Reilly, 2007). Weight issues in childhood sets the stage for a life-longstruggle with weight and eating problems, increasing health risks such as obesity, diabetesmellitus, sleep apnoea, hypertension and heart disease (Harrison
2011). Once obesity isestablished in children it can be hard to reverse and therefore, early intervention is essential.Lovejoy (2011) states that, obesity is complex and multifaceted and no individual person ororganization can address the childhood obesity epidemic on their own. Success rates for obesitymanagement increase when communities, schools and families join in adherence to a healthylifestyle. Celebrity support and positive media attention can increase awareness and establishchange as shown by the First Lady Michelle Obama
‟s “Let‟s Move” campaign.
2.1 Definition and Assessment of ObesityChildhood obesity is an excessive development of fat throughout the body of an individual frominfancy to the age of 13 (WHO, 2008). Overweight and obesity are both terms used for weightranges that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height; therefore, itputs people at risk of