MSCs have been heavily researched in the veterinary field over the years due to theprospects of using them in tissue production and regeneration (Black,
Figure 1: Illustration of potential development of adult stem cells
Gattegno-Ho, Argyle, & Argyle,2012).
Research in the last few years has also yielded the potential to reprogram adult stem cells sothat they can produce any cell from any organ or tissue in the body (Kim,
2008). Thisessentially removes the ethical implications associated with embryonic stem cells giving apromising replacement. It is not yet clear the extent to which these cells can be used inclinical treatment but future applications look bright.Stem cells have several modes of actions that make them beneficial as a treatment. Theyare capable of forming cartilage, bone, tendon and ligament cells and have been shown toinduce an anti-inflammatory effect in damaged tissue while recruiting more stem cells tothe area to increase the rate of healing. Stem cells have also been shown to inhibitapoptosis (Richardson