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Toxic Archipelago Amy E Smithson December 1999

Toxic Archipelago Amy E Smithson December 1999

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Published by SFLD
Toxic Archipelago:
Preventing Proliferation from the
Former Soviet Chemical and Biological
Weapons Complexes
Amy E. Smithson
Toxic Archipelago:
Preventing Proliferation from the
Former Soviet Chemical and Biological
Weapons Complexes
Amy E. Smithson

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Published by: SFLD on Aug 31, 2012
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Toxic Archipelago:Preventing Proliferation from theFormer Soviet Chemical and BiologicalWeapons Complexes
Amy E. Smithson
 Report No. 32 December 1999
Copyright©199911 Dupont Circle, NWNinth FloorWashington, DC20036phone 202.223.5956fax 202.238.9604info@stimson.org
 
Copyright©1999 byThe Henry L. Stimson Center11 Dupont Circle, NWNinth FloorWashington, DC 20036
tel
202.223.5956
 fax
202.238.9604
email
info@stimson.org
 
Preface and Acknowledgments
This report is the second major narrative by the Stimson Center’s Chemical andBiological Weapons Nonproliferation Project on the problems associated with the vastchemical and biological weapons capabilities created by the USSR. An earlier report,
Chemical Weapons Disarmament in Russia: Problems and Prospects
(October 1995),contained the first public discussion of security shortcomings at Russia’s chemical weaponsfacilities and the most detailed account publicly available of the top secret chemical weaponsdevelopment program of Soviet origin, code-named
novichok 
.
Toxic Archipelago
examines another aspect of the USSR’s weapons of massdestruction legacy, the proliferation problems that stem from the former Soviet chemical andbiological weapons complexes. Given the number of institutes and individuals with expertisein chemical and biological weaponry that have been virtually without the financial support of their domestic governments since the beginning of 1992, this report provides an overview of a significant and complex proliferation dilemma and appraises the efforts being made toaddress it. This topic and other issues of chemical and biological weapons proliferationconcern are also covered on the project’s worldwide web page, which can be found at theChemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project section of the Stimson web siteat:www.stimson.org/.The Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project was inaugurated inJanuary 1993 with a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. That month, theinternational community gathered in Paris to sign the Chemical Weapons Convention, a treatybanning poison gas that entered into force on 29 April 1997. The project serves as awatchdog over the implementation of this accord and its sister treaty, the Biological andToxin Weapons Convention. The project also functions as an information clearinghouse onall issues related to chemical and biological weapons proliferation and nonproliferation. Theproject’s final role is that of problem solver, seeking to draw attention to proliferationproblems and to improve the policies, treaties, and other mechanisms that aim to reduce thethreat presented by chemical and biological weapons.Numerous individuals contributed to the author’s research for this report. Shewishes to thank the personnel of the International Science and Technology Center for theircooperation with her research. Numerous ISTC staffers shared their own insights andexperiences. The ISTC also helped by arranging interviews with biological weapons experts

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