as a bilingual. This is due to the nature of language acquisition and use for bilinguals, whichis seen to occur for different purposes, in different social contexts, and with a variety of social groups (Fabbro, 2001). Extensive research has therefore been conducted into thisspecific ability, to acquire multiple methods of verbal communication, as it is considereduniquely human and a skill that could be mediated by functional and structural changes in thebrain (Mechelli et al., 2004). It could be argued that the empirical investigations of bilingualism, and particularly of the neurological consequences, have run in parallel withmonolingual language research, which has provided a neuroanatomical configuration withwhich to compare the brain structure of bilinguals.Although there remains some uncertainty about the exact location of all languagefunctions, there is a general consensus in the field that, regardless of dexterity (Rasmussen &Milner, 1977), language is mediated by a series of interconnected regions in the lefthemisphere (Stirling & Elliot, 2008). Broca and Wernicke were the first researchers toinvestigate and determine the importance of the left hemisphere in human language byconducting separate studies of aphasia, or the acquired impairment of language ability(Broca, 1861; Wernicke, 1875), which created legacies that are indelibly established inmodern brain research.
now refers to the region of the brain that is integral tothe production of speech, and is located in the inferior frontal association cortex, rostral to the
base of the left primary motor cortex, whereas Wernicke‟s area, located in the middle and
posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus, has been shown to play a pivotal role in theanalysis of speech sounds, comprehension of words, and production of meaningful speech(Carlson, 2011). Although these areas are believed to be fundamental to language, languagerelated activation has also been observed in a variety of other brain regions, such as themiddle and inferior temporal gyri, lingual and fusiform gyri, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,