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New strategies in plant pest protection

New strategies in plant pest protection

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An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by David Corscadden. Originally submitted for Horticulture, Sportsturf and Landscape Management at University College Dublin, with lecturer Dr Olaf Schmidt in the category of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by David Corscadden. Originally submitted for Horticulture, Sportsturf and Landscape Management at University College Dublin, with lecturer Dr Olaf Schmidt in the category of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences

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Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 31, 2012
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10/27/2013

 
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New strategies in plant pest protection
Pest protection is important for growers in both agriculture and horticulture (Board Bia, 2000). Pestscan have a major impact on plant health, yield potential and plant development (Molla et al 2011). Itis important to for growers to protect plants in the most effective and cost efficient way possible.Integrated pest management (IPM) has been a leading force in modern day pest protection, usingthe right chemical at the right time to reduce pest levels to a safe medium (Dhawan, 2009). Finding asuccessful ways to control pests and adapting this control as part of IPM has given positive resultsacross many studies. IPM is an area which has shown to have a less detrimental effect to theenvironment and human health than common practices and being widely adopted (Nicholas, 2011).The innovative field of Genetic modification of crops has led to many plants being developed withpest resistance built in and is continuing to evolve and develop better resistance as more research iscarried out. As pest are evolving so rapidly modern pest management is continuously evolving andhas shown great potential to find ways of controlling pests. The issue of resistance builds updetrimental effect to both the environment and h
umans’ health as shown a decrease with adoption
of IPM
Table of Contents
Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 2Review of literature ................................................................................................................................. 3IPM methods to control Pest populations .......................................................................................... 3IPM controlling Greater Sandhill Crane ........................................................................................... 3IPM role in reducing pesticide levels in India .................................................................................. 4Genetically modified plants for pest resistance .................................................................................. 5Adapting Natural resistance to control pests ...................................................................................... 6Control of herbivore pests of wheat crops ..................................................................................... 6The use of dimethyl disulfide on brassicas pests ............................................................................ 7The control of black vine weevil using nematodes: ............................................................................ 8Environmentally friendly control of Tomato borer ............................................................................. 9Pest management practices for slugs ............................................................................................... 10Conclusion: ............................................................................................................................................ 11Bibliography........................................................................................................................................... 12
 
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Introduction
Pest protection is a key concern for both agricultural and horticultural growers. In 2000 field growncrops accounted for 5,286 hectares of land cover, which equates to 47.5 million euro in revenue forgrowers (Board Bia, 2000) . For such a high monetary value area, they must be protected to preventfinancial losses. The horticulture sector
has an estimated annual value of €380
million(2011).Protected and field grown crops have an equal potential of being attacked by pests.Some of the main pests to be studied in this review are slugs, snails, black vein weevil, aphids andlarger pests like rabbits and the Greater Sandhill crane of America.Pest management is a consistently evolving area where new techniques are required to adequatelydeal with problematic pests. Due to the over-use of pesticides insects can become resistant to theireffect which results in the need for new chemicals (Dhawan, 2009). This is an area, which requiresmuch research and testing, to find successful chemical controls. Many new practises have evolvedfrom methods, which worked in the past. Often studying the chemicals in new ways helps to findmore effective ways of using them.In modern society there has be a move towards environmentally friendly practises as people havebecome aware of the impact chemicals have on the environment (A. K. Dhawan 2009). This has led tothe wide adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IMP is
defines it as “
a process consisting of the balanced use of cultural, biological, and chemical procedures that are environmentallycompatible, economically feasible, and socially acceptable to reduce pest populations to tolerable
levels”
(Extension 2012) This process has been adopted in both developed and underdevelopedcountries.The objectives of this review are to critically evaluate common pest management methods with aneye for its involvement as part of an IPM strategy.
 
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Review of literature
IPM methods to control Pest populations
IPM controlling Greater Sandhill Crane
Having reviewed current literature on pest managements one of the main practices being adopted isthat of an IPM program. In America this movement is carried out under the Extension program whichaims to educate growers in findings from research carried out in universities across the country. InEurope IPM will be mandatory for all agriculture by 2014 (Nicholas, 2011). An example of Extensionswork with IPM is their work with Wisconsin famers and the control of the Greater Sandhill crane(Grus Candensis tabida) (GSC). The GSC is destructive pest of newly planted corn due to yield lossesor having to replanting costs (Cullen, 2010). Cullen (2010) explains that in total almost 3.7 millionacres of corn are grown in Wisconsin with nearly 75% of this land within the roosting area of the GSC.Extension works are on the bases of bringing academic research and findings to farmers and growerswith the objective of educating the growers in better practices for pest management. In the diagramit can be seen how Extension works with other organisations to control pests. In the case of the GSCresearch Extension worked with groups such as the International Crane Foundation and USEnvironmental Protection Agency as well as the growers. This allowed them to work on finding asolution which not only benefited the growers but was accepted by the environmental agencies.
Diagram One: Diagrammatic explanation of IPM -
This diagram explains the interaction of Community of place (I.e. Extension) and Communities of Interest (i.e. farmers and environmental agencies)
 

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