symptoms (the presence of atypical behaviour, i.e. delusions and hallucinations, otherwise“psychosis“) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Mueser & McGurk, 2004). Psychoticsymptoms are sufficient, but not necessary for the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia. That is,not every individual diagnosed with schizophrenia suffers from psychosis, but every individualwho suffers from psychosis qualifies for a diagnosis of schizophrenia (American PsychiatricAssociation, 2000). The heterogeneity within the disorder has resulted in a diverse body of literature addressing various aspects of schizophrenia. With the goal of narrowing the theoreticalscope of this paper, the emphasis of analysis will be placed on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia due to their particularly debilitating effect on functioning, and their uniqueassociation with the schizophrenic disorders.
Current Theories of Psychosis
In recent years, two prominent theories of the development of psychosis in schizophreniahave been posited - the “salience dysregulation” theory of schizophrenia (Kapur, 2003, 2004),and the “cognitive dysmetria” theory of schizophrenia (Andreasen, Nopoulos, O’Leary, Miller,Wassink, & Flaum, 1999; Andreasen & Pierson, 2008). The salience dysregulation theory of schizophrenia is largely concerned with the role of dopamine in the modulation of salienceattribution. The cognitive dysmetria theory of schizophrenia is concerned with disconnectivity between the cerebellum and various cortical areas, and the resulting cognitive impairments.Although these theories have produced independent bodies of empirical literature (e.g. Holt etal., 2006; Howes et al., 2009; McGowan, Lawrence, Sales, Quested & Grasby, 2004 versusLoeber, Cintron, & Yurgelun-Todd, 2001; Okugawa, Nobuhara, Sugimoto & Kinoshita, 2005) itappears that a convergence of the theories might facilitate the construction of a more cohesiveimage of the development of psychosis in schizophrenia. Whereas cognitive dysmetria theoryfocuses on the ways in which incoming information is processed, salience dysregulation theory