1. A UNIQUE NETWORK.
The internet is a unique realm, unlike any other medium of communication or subjectof international law. It stands out in two specific ways: its relation to people and its relationto states. Internet governance is a growing subject in international law that provides forempowered actions not only from involved states but also from interested individuals, privatecorporations, and the technological community. The internet itself then provides challengesto the territorial confines of traditional state sovereignty as an imagined space beyondphysical limitation.
A. Non-state actors in internet governance.
As a structurally decentralised network, the internet gives equal treatment to everyconnected individual. This decentralised structure is a founding feature of the internet, meantas a security measure (Bilgil), and continued in most areas with the gradual, market-drivenglobal development of the internet (Ostrum 2011, 43). Because of this structure, censorshipand governmental repression are comparatively more difficult to maintain than over othermediums where governments are more closely involved with transmission and management(Drezner 2010, 40). As a result of this, the contributions of dissidents and non-affiliatedindividuals ‘can have a dramatic effect correcting information cascades’ from domesticconflicts and periods of unrest (Ibid). The architecture of the internet innately works as amedium for the rapid and guaranteed transmission of information on a computer-to-computerbasis without the obligation of transferring through a central hub.Indeed, the internet does not directly involve people: it is network amongstcomputers, providing a veil of anonymity for connected individuals. On the internet,‘anonymity . . . prevails’ (Hollis 2011, 378). Through this, a value of non-attribution hasemerged as a facilitator of the ‘freedom of expression and protect[ion of] individual privacy’