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Revisiting the Three-Polarizer Paradox

Revisiting the Three-Polarizer Paradox

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Published by jwr47
In a quantum physics model of the three-polarizer paradox the receiver horn receives exactly ¼ of the input energy in the setup of the web-experiment Polarization of Light and Microwaves (Quantum Physics).

In a microwave-model this calculated power balance also results in a median value of ¼ of the input energy.

In contrast to the quantum mechanics model however the energy level at the receiver may be higher or lower depending on the energy which is re-radiated by the polarizers.

These re-radiated elements do not depend on statistics but on geometrical dimensions and will be reproducibly constant in time for specific frequencies.

A setup with accurate power level measurements would be able to prove whether the microwave setup depends on quantum physics or may be considered a normal geometrical antenna design according to the works of Samuel Silver.
In a quantum physics model of the three-polarizer paradox the receiver horn receives exactly ¼ of the input energy in the setup of the web-experiment Polarization of Light and Microwaves (Quantum Physics).

In a microwave-model this calculated power balance also results in a median value of ¼ of the input energy.

In contrast to the quantum mechanics model however the energy level at the receiver may be higher or lower depending on the energy which is re-radiated by the polarizers.

These re-radiated elements do not depend on statistics but on geometrical dimensions and will be reproducibly constant in time for specific frequencies.

A setup with accurate power level measurements would be able to prove whether the microwave setup depends on quantum physics or may be considered a normal geometrical antenna design according to the works of Samuel Silver.

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Published by: jwr47 on Aug 31, 2012
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06/21/2013

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Revisiting the Three-Polarizer Paradox
J. Richter 
 public domain-photogtraph by Martin Hofer.Original uploader wasRüssel0815atde.wikipedia 
In 1972 I started working as an electronic engineer in the Telefunken antenna laboratories atAllmersbach/Tal. In antenna theory – ruled by the work of Samuel Silver 
1
– we ignored any kind of quantum physics. As far as I remember Silver never needed quantum models.Those days our problems were side-lobes, reflections and of course cross-polarization
2
. Cross- polarization was the worst enemy for antenna designs. Those days the customer (the German PostOffice) needed a two channel communication for which the horizontal and vertical polarization wasused. Those days poor cross-polarization characteristics were quite uncommon. The specialistsknew how to avoid the asymmetries.
1
and
-
 
 Fig.1: One of the towers at the AEG-Telefunken antenna-lab, southern Germany
 
The three-polarizer paradox
I remember to have studied the three-polarizer paradox which has been described in the web atmany locations. I borrowed the figure from a fine tutorial with the following short description
3
:“If two polarizing films are aligned in the same direction light, from the first polarizer  passes through the second. If the polarizers are opposed at a 90
o
angle, the polarized lighttransmitted from the first polarizer is absorbed by the second. If a third polarizer issandwiched between the two opposed polarizers at a 45
o
angle, some light gets through thelast polarizer. This is illustrated below using Dirac notation for both the photons and the polarizers.”The quantum physical model starts with light waves from unpolarized sources. This of course isvery unusual for microwave antennas. The polarization state of the photons in light waves fromunpolarized sources is unknown as it is explained in various web-papers
4
, which also explain whathappens according to the standard quantum theory:The model first suggests to remove
the h′ character of the photon by absorption
, but that is notimportant. In fact we will start by eliminating the first polarizer.
“When the v photon from the first vertical polarizer interacts with the middle polarizer oriented in the skewed-vertical direction the h′ character of the photon is removed byabsorption and only the v′ character passes the middle polarizer.
5
All three absorbers absorb photons. This idea should be replaced by another model in which energyis reflected to some other direction.
“As mentioned, each of the three polarizers absorbs photons. Half of the photons from thelight bulb are absorbed by the first vertical polarizer because we can consider theunpolarized light consisting of 50% photons in the v state, see eq 3.
...“Half of the v photons are absorbed by the second diagonal polarizer.
...
3Matrix Mechanics Approach to Polarized Light – by Frank Rioux, St. John's University/College of St. Benedict4
 
 Fig. 2: Three-polarizer Paradox setup
 
“Finally, half of the v′ photons passing the middle polarizer are absorbed by the third horizontal polarizer because the probability that a v′ photon will be found in the h state passing through the third polarizer is sin
2
(45°) = ½.
8
So each inserted polarizer halves the energy.Without the first polarizer the receiver horn receives ¼ of the input energy in the Three- (or to bemore precise the Two-) polarizer Paradox setup, which will now be discussed in detail.
8

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