This behavioural modification leads to a cost for the individual A or at least, noimmediate benefit3.
Due to A’s behaviour, B acquires new knowledge or skills or acquire
s them more rapidlyor efficiently then it would have without being taughtFrom this evolutionary perspective, teaching is therefore a form of cooperative behaviourwhose function is to promote learning in other individuals with no immediate benefit to theteacher and it requires an active role of the said teacher (Galef et al. 2005; West et al 2007;Thornton and Raihani 2008; 2010).This definition allows making a difference between teaching and other types of social learning,since the teacher gains no benefit unless the pupil learns (Thornton and Raihani 2008). In fact,even if teaching meets the current definition of cooperation (West et al. 2007), it is favoured inthe teacher because it promotes the acquisition of fitness-enhancing information in the pupil,which is really unique and apart from strictly cooperation (Fogarty et al. 2011). A keycharacteristic of teaching is also that the fitness payoff is therefore response-dependent, and itinvolves interaction between the donor and the receiver of the information (Thornton andRaihani 2008).Co-evolution of teacher and pupil strategies will result in each party responding to the cues of the other (Thornton and Raihani 2008). Hence bidirectionality of the feedback is likely to arise,
and can be an additional criteria to Caro and Hauser’s (1992) definition as p
roposed by (Franksand Richardson 2006), though it is not necessary (Thornton and Raihani 2008).One other property of teaching is that the
teacher ‘s individual
fitness does not only depend onwhether they possess the teaching genotype, but also whether they possess the acquiredinformation or skill that needs to be transmitted (Fogarty et al. 2011).