3soil erosion and associated nutrient losses (Skinner et al. 1997). In fact, it is fertilisers that arethe most common way agriculture affect water bodies.II.
Chemicals and NitrateAmong chemicals from agricultural fields, nitrogen and phosphorous are the biggestproblems, followed by potassium, calcium and magnesium (Chow et al. 2011). Thoseagrochemicals can find their way into either groundwater systems, through leaching, or surfacewater channels, through surface runoff processes (Chow et al. 2011). Agrochemical loss cancause great environmental problems, such as pollution of surface waters, which can lead toeutrophication and reduction of drinking water quality (Chow et al. 2011). Moreover, because of precipitation, fertilisers with high Nitrate concentration are washed up from the fields and endup in the water, and this has a cascading effect. First, the runoff will lead to the nitrification of the waters, and nitrification will allow the creation of algal blooms (NaFIRRI 2011). Those algalblooms will in turn affect the whole ecosystem, and particularly by decreasing the fishpopulation because they decrease the Oxygen (O2) concentration (NaFIRRI 2011). This is theprocess known as eutrophication.Important fertiliser concentration in aquatic systems will also lead to an increase of already fastgrowing species like the water hyacinth (Meredith 2011). This plant, because of it rapid growth,will choke fish and create stagnation because of its invasion of water surface. Therefore becauseof stagnation there will be an increase of snails containing the schistosomiasis parasite as well asan increase of mosquito population which will increase the risk of malaria, because bothorganisms do well in stagnant waters (Meredith 2011). Hence there can be important humanrisks associated with agricultural impact on inland water ecosystems.