the contemporary European/American order is the overall subordination of women anddominance of men – the structure Women’s liberation named ‘patriarchy’. This generalstructure exists despite many local reversals (e.g., women-headed households, femaleteachers with male students).”
Following this logic, if Japanese men are emasculated inthe presence of an American male, then it could be interpreted as the emasculation of theJapanese society under dominance of American society. Edward W. Said, an influentialcultural critic, described Hollywood narratives as “a Western style for dominating,restructuring, and having authority over the Orient.”
One example of this type of narrative can be found in John Luther Long’s
, which as an opera became “one of the most widely performed and long-lasting in the repertory.”
Author Endymion Wilkinson has recognized
as becoming its own master narrative. The narrative consists of having “the rich tradition of Oriental exoticism [take]a new form as colonial conquest and rule [provide] the opportunity in the form of readilyavailable girls, and encouraged Europeans and Americans to think of the West as activeand masculine and the East as passive and feminine.”
By associating the West withmasculine qualities, the West is given patriarchal power over the East. Is Americansupremacy still shown in American films of the 2000s through the feminization of theJapanese male?Eisler and Skidmore’s study established several qualities that cause stress to menif they are unable to meet gender role expectations. The stress associated with thesequalities shows that they have been accepted by society as being masculine. Therefore,
. Berkeley: University of California, 1995, 74.
Said, Edward W.
. New York: Vintage, 1979, 3.
Asian America through the Lens: History, Representations, and Identity
. WalnutCreek, CA: AltaMira, 1998, 59.
Wilkinson, Endymion Porter.
Japan versus the West: Image and Reality
. London, England:Penguin, 1990, 113.