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material factors and the fit of dental casting

material factors and the fit of dental casting

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An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards (Ireland) Competition by Leesa Lim. Originally submitted for dentistry at University College Cork, with lecturer Noel Ray in the category of Medical Sciences
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards (Ireland) Competition by Leesa Lim. Originally submitted for dentistry at University College Cork, with lecturer Noel Ray in the category of Medical Sciences

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Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 31, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Abstract :
Dental casting has been in practise for many years. The materials used in the process have been studied and improvements have been made to these materials through out the years. All thestudies and work done have all been to achieve one end result, and that is a more precise, stronger and accurate fitting final restoration. While many improvements have been made on the materialsused, it is very important for the individual working with the materials to understand the propertiesof the materials and how they influence the final restoration. Therefore, this paper discusses thedifferent materials and how they factor in to the accuracy and fit of the final restoration.
Keywords :
Dental castingsMaterial propertiesImpression materialsDental stoneWax patternPhosphate-bonded investmentAlloysFit of precision casting1
With the increase in dental health awareness, more people are keeping their dentition for longer and deciding against extractions. Consequently, there has been an increase in demand for indirect restorations (ie: crowns, veneers, bridges etc) as well as for partial dentures. The mostcommon casting process utilized in dentistry is the “lost-wax technique” (LWT), which is a form precision dental casting. In order to preserve the longevity of these restorations as well as the patients’ oral health, it is crucial that the restorations be accurately fitting as is the case for any prosthetic treatment.
The LWT is made up of a few stages, starting with the preparation of the dentition,impression taking of the prepared dentition, pouring up of the impression, waxing up the desired pattern, investing the wax, burning-out the wax, casting the alloy into the mould and finishing and polishing the casted metal.
 Therefore it is obvious that the whole LWT process involves manydifferent materials, each of which have an influence on the final fit and accuracy of the castings. It isthe aim of this paper to review literature from 1960-2008, discussing how these different materialsaffect the fit of dental castings. The following aims will be used to review the literature: 1. Propertiesof impression material and dental stones; 2. Properties of wax; 3. investment materials; and 4. castingalloys and ceramics.
 A well-fitting full-gold crown
1.Properties of impression material and dental stone
High-quality and accurate impressions are imperative to produce an accurate stone-dieand subsequently a well-fitting and long lasting indirect restoration.
Impression materials(IM) are divided into elastics (hydrocolloids and elastomers) and non-elastics.2Studies haveshown synthetic elastomers to produce the most accurate stone casts.
The main concerns regarding IM are permanent (PD) deformation, setting shrinkage(SS), DS and tear resistance (TR) which will in turn affect the accuracy of the stone-die. Thehydrocolloids have a PD of 1.0% after 10% strain and from the many studies and researchesdone, have been shown to be the least dimensionally stable and have low tear resistance.6
, 5 
This could effect the fit quite considerably if the tear happened at a prepared margin. Whilethere has been research supporting the use of hydrocolloids due to their low cost andcapability of producing good attention do detail impressions,
numerous studies have proven addition-type silicones (AS), to posses the best physical properties and have proven to produce the best fitting restorations.3
The PD of elastomers is 0.1% for 10% stress5 2
and it has excellent elastic properties.6Given that the polymerisation of AS is simply thecross-linking of pre-existing polymers chains, it has a low setting shrinkage.2
There have been concerns relating to the hydrophobic nature of AS and its ability to produce accurateimpressions in the presence of any moisture eg.saliva. However, much research and studieson “hydrophilic silicone rubbers” have shown that the addition of extrinsic surfactant haseffectively overcome this problem.2
AS are exceptionally stable IM because not only arethey polymers of polyvinyl siloxane (
 figure 2)
therefore, lacking volatile by-products, theyalso contain fillers of different proportions ( light, medium , heavy-bodied) which improvethe DS of the materials.6
.A summary of the properties of elastomeric IM are given in table1 and a detailed discussion can be found in the article by R. W. Wassel et al [6].6 
 Figure 2: Polyvinyl siloxane cross-linking showing no volatile by-products.2Table 1: A summary of the properties of elastomers.6 
The mineral ‘gypsum’ is the main “ingredient” for all dental stone. The settingmechanism is the re-hydration of calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CSH) by addition of water to the hemihydrate powder 
(Equation 1)
On addition of water to the powder, CaSO
dihydrate (CSD) crystals form and grow in the appearance of “spherulites” (needle-likestructures) and eventually push each other which in turn results in expansion known as thesetting expansion.2
In other words, the more CSD crystals (powder), the larger theexpansion.2
· 1/2 H
O + 3/2 H
· 2 H
OThe type of CSH used for dental casting is one where the initial CSD is boiled withcalcium chloride and magnesium chloride. Numerous studies,2
have shown this type of stone, “improved dental stone”/ “Densite”/ type IV and V stone, to produce the most accuratestone-dies.2
The setting expansion of Densite, which is on average 0.05-0.01% can becontrolled by the addition of “anti-expansion solutions” to the product and by the powder:water ratio.2Research has shown that all gypsum products expand and that it isactually a desirable effect in dental casting to overcome the shrinkage of the alloys whichwould produce tight restorations in absence of this expansion.2

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