Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Carotenoids, Neuropeptide-Y and Cardiovascular disease

Carotenoids, Neuropeptide-Y and Cardiovascular disease

Ratings: (0)|Views: 20|Likes:
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards (Ireland) Competition by Nathan Moore. Originally submitted for Intercalated BSc in Cardiovascular Science at Queen University Belfast, with lecturer Dr. Malcolm Campbell in the category of Medical Sciences
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards (Ireland) Competition by Nathan Moore. Originally submitted for Intercalated BSc in Cardiovascular Science at Queen University Belfast, with lecturer Dr. Malcolm Campbell in the category of Medical Sciences

More info:

Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 31, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less


1. Introduction
The World Health Statistics in 2008 showed that the main cause of death globally iscardiovascular disease (CVD), as shown in figure 1. The World Health Organization predictsthat worldwide deaths from cardiovascular diseases will rise from 17.1 million in 2004 to 23.4million in 2030.
The mortality from cardiovascular diseases has decreased in the past fewdecades in several countries, but is still responsible for >40% of total mortality.
There aremany known risk factors for CVD and these are divided into modifiable and non-modifiablerisk factors.
Figure 1: Projected deaths by cause for high, middle and low-income countries. Takenfrom (World Health Statistics 2008)
From a clinicians point of view the non-modifiable risk factors include: age, sex, ethnicity,genetics and socioeconomic status. Age is the most important determinant of an individual'srisk of CVD. At all ages men have a higher risk of CVD than women. However, after age 75women have a higher risk of stroke. There are thought to be many unknown polygenic risk factors which account for increased risk of premature CVD in close relatives. Monogenic risk factors such as familial hypercholesterolaemia are also known to be important. SouthernAsians have the highest risk for CVD. Afro-Caribbeans have an increased risk of 1
atherosclerotic sequelea such as stroke, but a decreased risk of ischaemic CVD compared toEuropean populations. People from the most deprived socio-economic groups have a three-fold increase in risk of CVD as compared to people from the least deprived socioeconomicgroups. The socioeconomic status of a group is modifiable over time through social andeconomic action. Conversely, it is rarely practical for a physician to modify an individual’ssocioeconomic status.Co-morbidities are also risk factors for CVD such as diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atrialfibrillation, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.Treatment of these conditions can decrease the risk of a cardiovascular event.
Modifiable risk factors are useful to both predict CVD in an individual and also to targetinterventions and monitor response to treatment. Modifiable risk factors include: smoking,alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, blood lipids, blood pressure, adiposity and psychosocial stress. A sedentary lifestyle is considered by various national and internationalorganisations to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Diet is also a major contributor to cardiovascular disease burden.Diets vary throughout the world. In the eastern part of Finland, the CVD mortality rate was 10times that in Crete, where the population eats a Mediterranean diet rich in plant foods andrelatively poor in animal foods. Differences such as these have been consistently found inepidemiological studies. This bodes the questions: what are the people eating to improve their CVD risk and through what mechanisms do the nutrients provide cardiovascular risk reduction?This review aims to summarise the literature surrounding the effect of carotenoids on thecardiovascular system. It will discuss these effects and progress to the evaluation of literatureabout NPY as a possible mechanism for the carotenoids’ action.2
2. Carotenoids and the Cardiovascular system
The beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables are mediated through a number of mechanismsthat include metabolism, immune modulation and hormonal induction.
Carotenoids are the pigments responsible for a variety of shades including the orange and yellow colours found insome fruit and vegetables. The carotenoids in the human diet are primarily derived from plants. There are more than 600 carotenoid compounds and approximately 50 of these areconsumed in the human diet.
However, only 12 different compounds are found in measurableconcentrations in human blood. The most abundant carotenoids in the European diet are β-carotene, α-carotene, γ-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and its derivatives β-crpytoxanthin and astaxanthin.
Carotenoids can also be found in animals to a lesser extent asthey are fed plant and algal products containing carotenoids. The plasma concentrations of carotenoids are considered good biomarkers of total dietary intake of fruit and vegetables.
Asyou can see from figure 2, carotenoids are essential in the human diet as we, unlike plants, donot possess the relevant metabolic equipment necessary to process geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene.
Figure 2: The significance of Carotenoids to the human diet. Adapted fro
Carotenoid synthesispathway
In Humans:In Plants:

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->