defeat which ultimately led to the Flight of the Earls in September 1607. After the war,many castles continued in use as English garrisons including Dublin and Limerick castle(Kerrigan, 1995, p.57). The numbers at most garrisons were reduced at this time and it isclear that some of the fortifications were neglected (Ibid). After the ‘Flight of the Earls’in 1607, fears of Spanish invasion were revived. This fear ensured that new forts andfortifications were constructed at Kinsale and Cork harbour (Ibid).
1.2 The Battle of Kinsale
It was during the Nine Years War that the Battle of Kinsale occurred. It occurred as aresult of O’ Neill needing assistance from Spain. In January 1601 Philip III of Spaindecided to send an army of six thousand men to Ireland (Palmer, p.327). The Spanishlanded at Kinsale on the twenty-first of September 1601 (Ibid). The Spaniards remainedin Kinsale and the outposts of Castle Park and Ringcurran Castle; this prevented theeffective use of the harbour by the English fleet (Kerrigan, 1995, p. 37). Ringcurraneventually surrendered after bombardment by culverins and cannon (Ibid). Castle Park resisted for longer, but after the surrender of the small garrison, the English placed threeculverins there to fire on the town (Ibid). At the end of November, Tyrone and his allies joined the Spaniards at Kinsale (Ibid). However, this battle outside the town resulted inan English victory and the Spanish forces later surrendered.
1.3 Munster Settlement