Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The Cation Exchange of CdS Nanocrystals Using Copper Based Ionic Liquids to form Cu2S Nanorods, for their Integration into Low Cost Solar Cells.

The Cation Exchange of CdS Nanocrystals Using Copper Based Ionic Liquids to form Cu2S Nanorods, for their Integration into Low Cost Solar Cells.

Ratings: (0)|Views: 37|Likes:
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards (Ireland) Competition by Claudia Coughlan. Originally submitted for Pharmaceutical and Industrial Chemistry at University of Limerick, with lecturer Dr. Kevin M. Ryan in the category of Chemistry
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards (Ireland) Competition by Claudia Coughlan. Originally submitted for Pharmaceutical and Industrial Chemistry at University of Limerick, with lecturer Dr. Kevin M. Ryan in the category of Chemistry

More info:

Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 31, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less

10/27/2013

 
i
The Cation Exchange of CdS Nanocrystals Using Copper Based IonicLiquids to form Cu
2
S Nanorods, for their Integration into Low Cost SolarCells.
Abstract
 This project presents a method for the modification in composition of the CdS nanocrystallattice stabilized by alkylphosphonic acid ligands, by means of a cation exchange reaction toultimately form Cu
2
S nanorods. Cu
2
S nanorods have been cited as a candidate material foruse in photovoltaic applications, however the synthesis of Cu
2
S has proven difficult. Thesenanorods offer significant promise as a low cost alternative to silicon devices, which are notcompetitive with grid electricity due to high fabrication costs.Semiconductor nanorods can be synthesised using low cost and low energy processes such aspyrolysis injection and cation exchange substitution. In this project, the CdS nanorods(<100nm) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of organometallic precursors in hot surfactants.The cation exchange reaction was carried out post-synthesis and involves the replacement of the Cd
2+
ions within the nanocrystal lattice with Cu
+
ions from solution. The modifiednanorods were characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission ElectronMicroscopy (TEM), High Resolution TEM (HRTEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Two cation exchange methods wereemployed in this project, both of which preserved the anisotropic shapes unique to the as-synthesized materials. EDS revealed that copper was predominant composition of thenanorods, with Point and Line Analysis providing further verification of this.This project also sought to investigate the recycling of the extracted cadmium for use insubsequent nanorod synthesis. The results obtained from Raman and UV-visible absorptionspectroscopy proved inconclusive, highlighting the requirement for further studies to becarried out in this area.Directed assembly of semiconductor nanorods onto a substrate is vital to ensure a highlyefficient photovoltaic device is produced. Electrophoresis was employed to attainperpendicular alignment of the semiconductor nanorods onto a glass substrate, coated withindium-tin oxide, which is the optimum architecture (when blended with conductingpolymers) for highly efficient nanorod-polymer based solar cells. SEM revealed strongnanorod alignment to the direction of the applied field and dense accumulation onto thevoltage-biased electrode.
 
ii
Table of ContentsAbstract:
i
 Table of Contents:
ii
List of Figures:
v
List of Tables:
vi
 1. Introduction 11.1 Introduction to Semiconductor Nanocrystals
1
 1.2 The Global Energy Perspective
2
 1.3 Re-introduction of CdS/Cu2S as a solar cell material
2
 1.4 Cu
2
S Nanorods
 – 
Candidate Solar Cell Material
3
 1.5 II-VI Synthesis
4
 
1.5.1 Introduction to II-VI Synthesis 41.5.2 General Synthesis Scheme 41.5.3 Kinetic Shape Control 41.5.4 Temperature dependence of the Growth of Nanocrystals 51.5.5 The Mechanism for Anisotropic Growth 61.5.6 Kinetic Size Control 61.5.7 Achieving Nanorod Monodispersity 81.5.8 Nanorod Growth 91.5.9 Absence of a Direct Cu
2
S Nanorod Synthetic Approach 10
 
iii
1.6 The Cation Exchange Reaction
11
 
1.6.1 Introduction to the Cation Exchange Reaction 111.6.2 Importance of the Cation Exchange Reaction in Nanocrystals 111.6.3 Conversion of CdS Nanorods to Cu
2
S Nanorods 121.6.4 The Thermodynamic Driving Force for the Reaction 131.6.5 Recycling of the Extracted Cadmium 13
 1.7 Alignment of Semiconductor Nanorods
14
 
1.7.1 Importance of Nanorod Orientation 141.7.2 Optimum Architecture for Highly Efficient Nanorod-Polymer 14Photovoltaics1.7.3 Alignment of Semiconductor Nanorods by Electrophoresis 14
1.8 Project Aims
16
2. Experimental Section: 17
2.1 Synthesis of Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) Nanorods 172.2 Cation Exchange from CdS to Cu
2
S Nanorods 182.3 Spin Exchange from CdS to Cu
2
S Nanorods 182.4 Synthesis of Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) Nanorods 192.5 Alignment of Semiconductor Nanorods 192.6 Characterization of Nanorod Assemblies 20
 
Powder X-Ray Diffraction 20
 
Transmission Electron Microscopy 20
 
Scanning Electron Microscopy 20
 
Raman Spectroscopy 21
 
UV-visible Absorption Spectroscopy 21

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->